Respiratory System 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System 2 Deck (21):
1

What is the other name for croup?

Acute laryngotracheobronchitis

2

Define croup?

Mucosal inflammation with increased secretions - affecting the airways with oedema of the subglottic area - potentially life-threatening!

3

What is the main causative agent of croup?

Parainfluenza virus - 95%

4

What is the age range of children affected by croup - and what is the peak onset?

6months - 6 years
Peak = 2 years

5

Describe the classical presentation of croup?

Onset is insidious (over a few days with slow progression) initially coryza followed by stridor, wheeze and a classical 'barking' cough

6

What causative agent commonly causes epiglottis?

Haemophilias influenza B
Associated with septicaemia

7

What age bracket does epiglottitis often affect?

1 - 6 years

8

Describe 5 signs and 3 symptoms associated with epiglotitis?

Soft stridor
Drooling slaiva
Inability to drink
Toxic appearance
Child often leans forward
NO cough
High grade fever
Sore throat

9

What should be avoided in children with suspected epiglotitis?

Attempts to lie the child flat
O/E of the throat

10

What is the typical finding on laryngoscopy of a child presenting with epiglotitis?

'Cherry' red swollen epiglotis

11

Define asthma?

Chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway with reversible airway obstruction and typical symptoms (diurnal variation)

12

Describe four symptoms associated with asthma?

Cough - recurrent and dry - worse at night/exercise
Wheeze - expiratory
SOB - triggers and exercise limitation
Chest tightness

13

Name six common triggers for asthma?

Smoking
Exercise
Pollen/dust
Beta blockers
Aspirin

14

On Hx and O/E of a child with asthma - what five relevant likelihoods are there?

Family and personal Hx of atopy
Widespread wheeze on auscultation
Acid reflux - 60%
Unexplained peripheral blood eosinophillia
Symptoms improve with treatment

15

O/E of a child with asthma - what three findings may be apparent with uncontrolled asthma?

Silent chest - SEVERE
Harrison's sulcus
Barrel chest

16

What two things might CXR of a child with asthma show?

Air trapping (hyper-inflation)
Collapse (mucous plugging)

17

Describe the management of a child under the age of five with asthma?

1. Short acting B2 agonist
2. Inhaled corticosteroid
3. Monteleukast
4. Refer

18

Describe the management of a child over the age of five with asthma?

1. Short acting B2 agonist
2. Inhaled corticosteroid
3. Long acting B2 agonist (+Monteleukast/theophyline)
4. Increase inhaled corticosteroid dose
5. Oral steroids/ Refer

19

In an acute asthma attack - define what constitutes a 'mild' attack?

Peak flow = 50% or higher than normal
Breathlessness without distress

20

In an acute asthma attack - define four factors that constitute a 'severe' attack?

Peak flow = Less than 50% normal
Too breathless to talk/feed
RR higher than 50
HR higher than 130

21

Describe five factors that constitute a 'life threatening' asthma attack?

1. Peak flow below 33%
2. Silent chest
3. Cyanosis
4. Fatigue/confusion
5. Decreased BP