Congestive Heart Failure Flashcards
What is cardiac failure?
State in which the heart is unable to meet the oxygen and metabolic demands of the body
Cardiac failure may be present in both a resting state or during exertion. Which is worse?
Cardiac failure during resting state
Left heart failure is caused by the disease of what three things?
Myocardium, valves, coronary arteries
What is a BIG contribution to left heart failure?
What is the #1 cause of RHF?
Right heart failure is caused by the disease of what 3 things?
Lung parenchyma, lung vascularity, and cor pulmonale (Right heart enlargement).
Left heart failure can be classified as either what two things?
Forward systolic failure and backward diastolic failure
What does the EF look like in forward systolic failure?
What does the EF look like in backward diastolic failure?
Forward systolic failure is also known as what?
Backward diastolic failure is also know as what?
What does HFrEF stand for?
Heart Failure reduced EF
What does HFnEF stand for?
Heart Failure normal EF
What would the EF be in HFrEF?
What would the EF be in HFnEF?
What happens in forward failure?
Impaired ventricular contraction, most commonly from ischemic heart disease
What percentage of all CHF are due to forward failure?
What happens in backward failure?
Impaired ventricular relaxation, most commonly from hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy
What percentage of all CHF are due to backward failure?
Why does left heart failure lead to right heart failure?
Filling pressures rise and back up
What three things is LVH caused by?
Aortic stenosis, high BP, age
Reduced compliance in the LV leads to what two increases?
Increase in LV and LA filling pressures
What are the four stages of backwards failure?
- Elevation of LV end diastolic pressure
- Elevation of LA pressure
- Elevation of pulmonary pressures
- Elevation of right heart pressure
What are the six symptoms of left-sided CHF?
- Dyspnea (difficulty breathing due to pulmonary congestion)
- Orthopnea (difficulty breathing while laying down)
- Parxysmal Nocturnal dyspnea
- Acute pulmonary edema
- Fatigue (due to low cardiac output)
- Palpitations (mitral valve being shittyy)
What are the seven signs of left-sided CHF?
- Cardiomegaly (dilation as seen on x-ray)
- Ventricular heave (LV pushes against the chest wall)
- 3rd heart sound (early filling)
- 4th heart sound (decreased compliance)
- Rales or crackles (sounds while breathing)
- Cheyne-Stokes respiration (start and stop respiration)
- Tachycardia (as CO reduces, HR increase)
Other than left-sided failure, what three things cause right-sided failure?
Pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema
What are seven signs of RV failure?
- RVH (high afterload)
- Murmur (Pulmonary and tricuspid regurg)
- Elevated jugular venous pulse
- Pitting edema
What are four symptoms of RV failure?
- Fatigue (Due to reduced CO)
- Dependent edema (Ankles when upright, sacral and abdomen when supine)
- Liver engorgement (RUQ pain)
- Anorexia or bloating (Due to hepatic or visceral engorgement)