Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

BDS1 - BAMS - Histology > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (39)
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1

What is connective tissue

Tissue which provides general structure, mechanical strength, space filling as well as physical and metabolic support for more specialised tissues

2

What are the 3 structural properties of connective tissues and what provides them

Tensile strength - collagen
Elasticity - elastin
Volume - glycoproteins and complex carbohydrates

3

What are examples of connective tissue and what are their functions

Bone - structural integrity
Cartilage - protects joints, structural integrity
Tendons and ligaments - connect muscle to bone and protect joints
Adipose tissue - energy storage
Mesentry - connects the intestine to the abdomen
Layers under skin and around organs - support

4

What are the 3 main components of connective tissue

Extracellular matrix - made up of ground substance and fibres
Cells

5

What is the difference in the epithelial tissues and connective tissues

Epithelial tissues are attached to each other in layers
Connective tissues typically have less cells and they are not necessarily in contact with each other - cells are separated by the extracellular matrix which provides them with structural and chemical support

6

What is the ground substance

It provides biochemical support
It is a clear semi solid gel
It is composed of glycoproteins and complex carbohydrates:
1. Hyaluronic acid
2. Glucosamine
It has profound water binding ability
It supports intercellular exchange of substances

7

What are the two main types of fibres

Collagen - strongest, most abundant, provide tensile strength
Elastin - long, branched, provide stretch and recoil ability

8

What is the function of collagen

Provides tensile strength to resist pulling, stretching and tearing

9

How is collagen secreted

It is secreted by connective tissue cells in the form of tropocollagen monomer
Tropocollagen monomer polymerise longitudinally forming collagen fibrils which are cross linked by enzyme

10

How many types of collagen are there & what are the most common

28
Most common are types 1-9

11

Describe the first 3 types of collagen

Type 1 - found in fibrous tissues (dermis of skin, tendons, ligaments, bone)
Type 2 - hyaline cartilage
Type 3 - delicate branched ‘reticular’ network found in highly cellular organs (livers and LNs)

12

Function of elastin

Confers the properties of stretching and elastic recoil which allows tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting

13

How is elastin secreted and where is it found

It is secreted by fibroblasts in the form of a precursor monomer tropoelastin
Found in:
Skin
Lungs
Blood Vessels
Bladder

14

What are the 3 cells of connective tissues and what do they do

***blasts - synthesise ECM
***cytes - maintain ECM
***clasts - breakdown ECM

15

What do fibroblasts do

Most common connective tissue cell type
Secrete fibres and components of ground substance

16

What do chondrocytes do

Secrete and maintain ECM in cartilage

17

Why are connective tissues deemed as highly vascularised?

Contain blood vessels and lymphatic’s
Contain immune cells which surgery tissues for invading pathogens/cell damage

18

Which connective tissue is not vascularised

Cartilage

19

What are the classifications of connective tissue

Connective tissue proper
Skeletal connective tissues
Fluid connective tissues (old classification)

20

Describe connective tissue proper

Broad category of diverse structure and functions
Loose or dense depending on arrangement of fibres
Generally connect tissues to each other, fills spaces between organs and provides metabolic support

21

Describe skeletal connective tissue

Cartilage
Bone

22

Describe fluid connective tissue

Blood
Lymph

23

Describe loose connective tissue

Fewer fibres, more ground substance
Functions include mechanical support as well as offering nutritional and defensive support to its surroundings

24

Describe dense connective tissues

Used for strength
Compact arrangement of collagen fibres serves to resist stretch
Bands of such connective tissue are used to join bones and as tendons to connect muscles to bone

25

Describe areolar tissue and their location

Universal packing material - supports and binds other tissues
Found beneath skin, submucosa, surrounding capillaries

26

Describe adipose tissue

Contains adipocytes found in isolation or in small clusters throughout loose supporting tissues and are the main cell type in adipose tissues
Generally has a rich blood supply although may not show up in tissue sections

27

Function and location of adipose tissue

Functions include energy storage, shock absorption, insulation
Found deep beneath skin, breasts, in the abdomen, finger and foot pads

28

What are adipocytes

Cells specialised for the storage of fat

29

Describe reticular connective tissue

Delicate branched network of reticular fibres, made of type III collagen
Provides internal structure to highly cellular organs

30

Describe dense regular connective tissue

Closely packed collagen fibres running in the same direction (parallel)
Provides tensile strength - resists pulling forces in one direction
Found in tendons and ligaments