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BDS1 - BAMS - Histology > Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Glands Deck (74)
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1

What are glands

Epithelial cells that produce secretions

2

What are the 2 types of glands

exocrine
endocrine

3

What do endocrine glands do

release hormones directly into the blood stream

4

What do exocrine glands do

have ducts, opens up into a cavity or another organ or another duct

5

How can endocrine glands exist

As part of the epithelial surface e.g lining of digestive tract
Separate organs such as thyroid or pituitary gland

6

What are endocrine glands involved in

Regulation of bodily functions and maintain homeostasis

7

What are the 3 patterns of hormone secretion

chronic
acute
episodic

8

How is hormone secretion regulated

humoral (blood borne molecules)
neural (neurons stimulate hormone production)
hormonal (hormone secretion stimulates another hormone to be secreted)

9

What are the main parts of the endocrine system

hypothalamus
pituitary gland
parathyroid gland
thymus
adrenal glands
pineal gland
thyroid
pancreas
ovary
testis

10

Describe how the thyroid gland is unusual

hormones are stored in cavities surrounded by secretory cells, which make up a 'follicle'

11

How are hormones secreted in the thyroid gland

The hormone is reabsorbed from the cavity, and then released into the surrounding interstitial spaces

12

What does the thyroid gland secrete

T4, T3, calcitonin

13

Which cells secrete calcitonin

the c cells

14

What does the parathyroid gland do

It produces hormones called the parathyroid hormone which has effect on the osteoclasts which are responsible for absorbing bone

15

What happens when there is an increase in parathyroid hormone

Bone is resorbed causing release of calcium into the body

16

What is calcium metabolism maintained by

calcitonin
PTH
vitamin D

17

How do sections of exocrine glands work

secretions are released through ducts that open onto the epithelial surface

18

How are exocrine glands classified

by structure or by method of secretion

19

What are the classifications of structure

duct system may be branched (compound gland) or unbranched (simple gland)
secretory component may be tubular or acinar
both types of secretory component may be ciliated or branched

20

What are the different types of secretion

merocrine
apocrine
holocrine

21

What is merocrine secretion

stores substance in vesicles which then travels to the duct and bursts

22

What is apocrine secretion

vesicles released in cytoplasm and then travels to the surface of the cell where it is pinched off and travels to the duct. When it dies off it releases the substance into the duct.

23

What is holocrine secretion

Discharge of whole secretory cells with subsequent disintegration of the cells to release the secretory product

24

What are unicellular glands

made of just one cell

25

What are multicellular glands

two types:
secretory sheet - simplest multicellular gland
pockets - pockets og glands set back from epithelial surface

26

What are the different types of multicellular glands

simple tubular
simple branched tubular
simple coiled tubular
simple acinar
compound tubular
compound acinar
compound tubiloacinar

27

Where are simple tubular glands found

stomach and colon

28

Where are simple branched tubular glands found

lower portion of the stomach (gastric glands) and small intestine

29

Where are simple coiled tubular and simple branched acinar found

sebaceous glands of skin

30

where are compound tubular found

mucus glands of duodenum