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Flashcards in Connective Tissues Deck (111):
1

Characteristics of Connective Tissue

1. Specialized cells
2. Solid extracellular protein fibers
3. Fluid extracellular ground substance

2

Make up the matrix

• The Extracellular Components of Connective
Tissue (Fibers and Ground Substance)

3

• Majority of tissue volume
• Determines specialized function

Matrix

4

• Functions of Connective Tissue

• Establishing a structural framework for the body
• Transporting fluids and dissolved materials
• Protecting delicate organs
• Supporting, surrounding, and interconnecting
other types of tissue
• Storing energy reserves, especially in the form of
triglycerides
• Defending the body from invading microorganisms

5

• Classification of Connective Tissues

1. Connective tissue proper
• Connect and protect
2. Fluid connective tissues
• Transport
3. Supporting connective tissues
• Structural strength

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• Connect and protect (connective tissue)

1. Connective tissue proper

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• Transport (connective tissue)

2. Fluid connective tissues

8

• Structural strength (connective tissue)

3. Supporting connective tissues

9

• More ground substance, fewer fibers
• For example, fat (adipose tissue)

• Loose connective tissue

10

Example of • Loose connective tissue

fat/adipose tissue

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• More fibers, less ground substance
• For example, tendons

• Dense connective tissue

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• Dense connective tissue example

tendons

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Categories of Connective Tissue Proper

1.Loose
2.Connective

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Connective Tissue Proper Cell Populations include 9 things. What are these 9 populations called?

Fibroblasts
• Fibrocytes
• Adipocytes
• Mesenchymal cells
• Macrophages
• Mast cells
• Lymphocytes
• Microphages
• Melanocytes

15

• The most abundant cell type
• Found in all connective tissue proper
• Secrete proteins and hyaluronan (cellular cement)

• Fibroblasts

16

• The second most abundant cell type
• Found in all connective tissue proper
• Maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper

• Fibrocytes

17

• Fat cells
• Each cell stores a single, large fat droplet

Adipocytes

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• Stem cells that respond to injury or infection
• Differentiate into fibroblasts, macrophages, etc.

• Mesenchymal Cells

19

• Large, amoeba-like cells of the immune system
• Eat pathogens and damaged cells
• Fixed macrophages stay in tissue
• Free macrophages migrate

Macrophages

20

Stay in the tissue

Fixed macrophages

21

migrate/leave the tissue tissue

• Free macrophages

22

• Stimulate inflammation after injury or infection
• Release histamine and heparin
• Basophils are leukocytes (white blood cells) that also
contain histamine and heparin

Mast cells

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are leukocytes (white blood cells) that also
contain histamine and heparin

Basophils

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• Release histamine and heparin

Mast cells

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• Specialized immune cells in lymphatic (lymphoid) system

• Lymphocytes

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lymphocytes may develop into ______ _______ (_______) that produce antibodies

plasma cells (plasmocytes)

27

• Phagocytic blood cells
• Respond to signals from macrophages and mast cells
• For example, neutrophils and eosinophils

Microphages

28

Examples of microphages

neutrophils and eosinophils

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• Synthesize and store the brown pigment melanin

Melanocytes

30

The 3 • Connective Tissue Fibers

1. Collagen fibers
2. Reticular fibers
3. Elastic fibers

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• Most common fibers in connective tissue proper
• Long, straight, and unbranched
• Strong and flexible
• Resist force in one direction
• For example, tendons and ligaments

Collagen Fibers

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Long, straight, and unbranched

Collagen Fibers

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• Strong and flexible

Collagen Fibers &
Reticular Fibers

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• Resist force in one direction

Collagen Fibers

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• For example, tendons and ligaments

Collagen Fibers

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• Network of interwoven fibers (stroma)
• Strong and flexible
• Resist force in many directions
• Stabilize functional cells (parenchyma) and
structures
• For example, sheaths around organs

Reticular Fibers

37

• Network of interwoven fibers

stroma

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functional cells are also known as

parenchyma

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• For example, sheaths around organs

Reticular Fibers

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• Resist force in many directions

Reticular Fibers

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• Contain elastin
• Branched and wavy
• Return to original length after stretching
• For example, elastic ligaments of vertebrae

• Elastic Fibers

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• Branched and wavy

Elastic Fibers

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• Return to original length after stretching

Elastic Fibers

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• For example, elastic ligaments of vertebrae

Elastic Fibers

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-Is clear, colorless, and viscous
• Fills spaces between cells and slows pathogen
movement

• Ground Substance

46

• Fills spaces between cells and slows pathogen
movement

• Ground Substance

47

• Are not found in adults
• Mesenchyme (embryonic stem cells)
---The first connective tissue in embryos
• Mucous connective tissue
---Loose embryonic connective tissue

• Embryonic Connective Tissues

48

The first connective tissue in embryos

Mesenchyme (embryonic stem cells)

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Loose embryonic connective tissue

Mucous connective tissue

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• Are not found in adults

• Embryonic Connective Tissues

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• Loose Connective Tissues are the “packing materials” of the body. What are the three types in adults

1. Areolar
2. Adipose
3. Reticular

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• Least specialized
• Open framework
• Viscous ground substance
• Elastic fibers
• Holds blood vessels and capillary beds
• For example, under skin (subcutaneous layer)

• Areolar Tissue

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• For example, under skin (subcutaneous layer)

• Areolar Tissue

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• Least specialized

• Areolar Tissue

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• Open framework

• Areolar Tissue

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• Holds blood vessels and capillary beds

• Areolar Tissue

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• Viscous ground substance

• Areolar Tissue

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Locations of • Areolar Tissue

LOCATIONS: Within and deep to the
dermis of skin, and covered by the
epithelial lining of the digestive,
respiratory, and urinary tracts;
between muscles; around joints,
blood vessels, and nerves

59

Functions of Areolar Tissue

FUNCTIONS: Cushions organs; provides
support but permits independent
movement; phagocytic cells
provide defense against
pathogens

60

• Contains many adipocytes (fat cells)

• Adipose Tissue

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• Two types of adipose tissue

1. White fat
2. Brown fat

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• Most common
• Stores fat
• Absorbs shocks
• Slows heat loss (insulation)

• White fat

63

• More vascularized
• Adipocytes have many mitochondria
• When stimulated by nervous system, fat breakdown
accelerates, releasing energy that will be absorbed
by surrounding tissues

• Brown fat

64

• Adipocytes in adults do not divide. Instead they:

• Adipocytes in adults• Expand to store fat
• Shrink as fats are released do not divide

65

• Mesenchymal cells divide and differentiate. Why?

To produce more fat cells
• When more storage is needed

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Adipose cells are either:

Adipocytes or Mesenchymal cells

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Locations of Adipose Tissue

LOCATIONS: Deep to the skin,
especially at sides, buttocks,
and breasts; padding around
eyes and kidneys

68

Functions of adipose tissue

FUNCTIONS: Provides
padding and cushions
shocks; insulates
(reduces heat loss);
stores energy

69

• Provides support
• Complex, three-dimensional network
• Supportive fibers (stroma)
---Support functional cells (parenchyma)
• Reticular organs
----Spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

• Reticular Tissue

70

support functional cells (in reticular tissue)

parenchyma

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Supportive fibers(in reticular tissue)

Stroma

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Examples are ----Spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

Reticular tissue

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Locations of reticular tissue

LOCATIONS: Liver, kidney, spleen,
lymph nodes, and bone marrow

74

Functions of reticular tissue

FUNCTIONS: Provides supporting
framework

75

proper, tightly packed with high
numbers of collagen or elastic fibers are what kind of tissues?

• Dense Connective Tissues

76

Kinds of dense connective tissues

• Dense regular connective tissue
• Dense irregular connective tissue
• Elastic tissue

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• Tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers

• Dense Regular Connective Tissue

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attach muscles to bones

Tendons

79

connect bone to bone and stabilize
organs

Ligaments

80

attach in sheets to large, flat
muscles

• Aponeuroses

81

Locations of Dense Regular Connective Tissue

LOCATIONS: Between skeletal
muscles and skeleton (tendons
and aponeuroses); between
bones or stabilizing positions
of internal organs (ligaments);
covering skeletal muscles;
deep fasciae

82

Functions of Dense Regular Connective Tissue

FUNCTIONS: Provides
firm attachment; conducts
pull of muscles; reduces
friction between muscles;
stabilizes positions
of bones

83

• Interwoven networks of collagen fibers
• Layered in skin
• Around cartilages (perichondrium)
• Around bones (periosteum)
• Form capsules around some organs (e.g., liver,
kidneys)

• Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

84

• Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Around cartilages

perichondrium

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• Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Around bones

periosteum

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• Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Form _______ around some organs (eg. _______, _________)

capsules
(liver, kidneys)

87

Locations of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

LOCATIONS: Capsules of
visceral organs; periostea
and perichondria; nerve
and muscle sheaths; dermis

88

Functions of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

FUNCTIONS: Provides
strength to resist forces
from many directions;
helps prevent
overexpansion of
organs, such as
the urinary bladder

89

• Made of elastic fibers

• Elastic Tissue

90

• For example, elastic ligaments of spinal vertebrae

• Elastic Tissue

91

Locations of Elastic Tissues

LOCATIONS: Between vertebrae
of the spinal column (ligamentum
flavum and ligamentum nuchae);
ligaments supporting penis;
ligaments supporting transitional
epithelia; in blood vessel walls

92

Functions of Elastic Tissues

FUNCTIONS: Stabilizes
positions of vertebrae and
penis; cushions shocks;
permits expansion and
contraction of organs

93

• Blood and lymph are what kinds of tissues?

• Fluid Connective Tissues

94

• Watery matrix of dissolved proteins
• Carry specific cell types (formed elements)
• Formed elements of blood
• Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
• White blood cells (leukocytes)
• Platelets

Blood and lymph

95

Red blood cells are also known as

erythrocytes

96

White blood cells are also known as

leukocytes

97

Elements of blood

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
White blood cells (leukocytes)
Platelets

98

• Fluid Elements of Connective Tissues extracellular are:

• Plasma
• Interstitial fluid
• Lymph

99

are responsible
for the transport of
oxygen (and, to a lesser
degree, of carbon dioxide)
in the blood.

Red blood cells, or
erythrocytes

100

account for about
half the volume of
whole blood and
give blood its color.

red blood cells

101

help defend the
body from infection and disease.

White blood cells or leukocytes

102

are phagocytes
similar to the
free macrophages
in
other tissues.

Monocytes

103

are
uncommon in the blood
but they are the dominant
cell type in lymph, the
second type of fluid
connective tissue.

Lymphocytes

104

are phagocytes.

Eosinophils and neutrophils

105

promote inflammation
much like mast cells
in other connective tissues.

Basophils

106

are
membrane-enclosed
packets of cytoplasm
that function in blood
clotting.

Platelets

107

These cell fragments
are involved in the
clotting response that
seals leaks in damaged
or broken blood
vessels.

Platelets

108

• Lymph's Extracellular fluid

• Collected from interstitial space
• Monitored by immune system
• Transported by lymphatic (lymphoid) system
• Returned to venous system

109

Fluid Tissue Transport Systems include

--Cardiovascular system (blood) and
• Lymphatic (lymphoid) system (lymph)

110

• Cardiovascular system (blood) includes

• Arteries
• Capillaries
• Veins

111

• Lymphatic (lymphoid) system (lymph) includes

Lymphatic vessels