Neural Tissue Flashcards Preview

a&p chapter 4 > Neural Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neural Tissue Deck (46):
1

Also called nervous or nerve tissue

• Neural Tissue

2

• Specialized for conducting electrical impulses
• Rapidly senses internal or external environment
• Processes information and controls responses

• Neural Tissue or nervous or nerve tissue

3

is concentrated in the central nervous
system

• Neural Tissue or nervous or nerve tissue

4

central nervous
system includes

brain and spinal cord

5

Two Types of Neural Cells

1. Neurons: Nerve cells, perform electrical
communication
2. Neuroglia: Supporting cells, repair and supply
nutrients to neurons

6

perform electrical
communication

Neurons or nerve cells

7

repair and supply
nutrients to neurons

Neuroglia or supporting cells

8

Cell Parts of a Neuron

• Cell body
• -----Contains the nucleus and nucleolus
• Dendrites
• -----Short branches extending from the cell body
• -----Receive incoming signals
• Axon (nerve fiber)
• -----Long, thin extension of the cell body
• -----Carries outgoing electrical signals to their
destination

9

Contains the nucleus and nucleolus

Cell body

10

• -----Short branches extending from the cell body
• -----Receive incoming signals

Dendrites

11

• -----Long, thin extension of the cell body
• -----Carries outgoing electrical signals to their
destination

Axon

12

Functions of neuroglia (supporting cells)

• Maintain physical structure
of tissues
• Repair tissue framework
after injury
• Perform phagocytosis
• Provide nutrients to neurons
• Regulate the composition of the
interstitial fluid surrounding neurons

13

Why do Tissues Respond to Injuries ?

• To maintain homeostasis

14

• Cells restore homeostasis with two processes which are

1. Inflammation
2. Regeneration

15

The tissue’s first response to injury

• Inflammation = Inflammatory Response

16

Signs and symptoms of the inflammatory response
include:

• Swelling
• Redness
• Heat
• Pain

17

• Inflammatory Response Can be triggered by:

• Trauma (physical injury)
• Infection (the presence of harmful pathogens)

18

physical injury is aka

trauma

19

the presence of harmful pathogens is aka

infection

20

• The Process of Inflammation: Damaged cells release chemical signals into the surrounding interstitial fluid . This affects:

• Prostaglandins
• Proteins
• Potassium ions

21

As cells break down, what two things happen?

• Lysosomes release enzymes that destroy the
injured cell and attack surrounding tissues
• Tissue destruction is called necrosis

22

What is Tissue destruction called?

necrosis

23

The Process of Inflammation is:

1. Necrotic tissues and cellular debris (pus)
accumulate in the wound
• Abscess — pus trapped in an enclosed area
2. Injury stimulates mast cells to release:
• Histamine
• Heparin
• Prostaglandins

24

Injury stimulates mast cells to release:

• Histamine
• Heparin
• Prostaglandins

25

pus trapped in an enclosed area

• Abscess

26

• Dilation of blood vessels

• Increases blood circulation in the area
• Causes warmth and redness
• Brings more nutrients and oxygen to the area
• Removes wastes

27

• Plasma diffuses into the area

• Causes swelling and pain

28

• Phagocytic white blood cells

Clean up the area

29

• When the injury or infection is cleaned up, what happens?

Healing (regeneration) begins

30

• Describe The Process of Regeneration

• Fibrocytes move into necrotic area
• ---Lay down collagen fibers
• ---To bind the area together (scar tissue)
• New cells migrate into area
• ---Or are produced by mesenchymal stem cells
• Not all tissues can regenerate
• ---Epithelia and connective tissues regenerate well
• ---Cardiac cells and neurons do not regenerate (or
regenerate poorly)

31

do not regenerate (or
regenerate poorly)

Cardiac cells and neurons

32

regenerate well

Epithelia and connective tissues

33

move into necrotic area

Fibrocytes

34

When an injury damages connective
tissue, mast cells release a variety of
chemicals. This process, called ____ _____ _______, stimulates inflammation.

mast cell activation

35

_________ produces several familiar indications of injury, including swelling, redness, heat (warmth), pain, and sometimes loss of function.

_________ may also result from the presence of pathogens, such as harmful bacteria, within the tissues. The presence of these pathogens constitutes an _______

Inflammation

Inflammation

Infection

36

The presence of these pathogens constitutes an _______

infection

37

is the repair that
occurs after the damaged tissue has
been stabilized and the inflammation
has subsided.

Regeneration

38

move into
the area, laying down a collagenous
framework

fibroblasts

39

a collagenous framework laid down by fibroblasts

scar tissue.

40

True or false: Over time, scar tissue is usually
“remodeled” and gradually assumes
a more normal appearance.

True

41

• Speed and efficiency of tissue repair decrease
with age, due to:

• Slower rate of energy consumption (metabolism)
• Hormonal alterations
• Reduced physical activity

42

• Effects of Aging

*Chemical and structural tissue changes*
• Thinning epithelia and connective tissues
• Increased bruising and bone brittleness
• Joint pain and broken bones
• Cardiovascular disease
• Mental deterioration

43

• Cancer rates ______ with age

increase

44

• __ percent of all people in the United
States develop cancer

25%

45

_____ is the #2 cause of death in the United
States

Cancer

46

_________ _______ and ______ _____
cause cancer

Environmental chemicals and cigarette smoke