Conscience Flashcards Preview

AQA A Level RS (ethics and philosophy) > Conscience > Flashcards

Flashcards in Conscience Deck (8)
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1

Kohlberg: conscience as behaviour developed through social interaction

Used dilemmas to establish 6 stages of moral development
Eg dilemma of heinz

Preconventional level:
Stage 1: odedince to norms as disobedience leads to punishment
Stage 2: individual behaviour determined by what is in best interest of individual

Conventional level:
Stage 3: do what will gain approval of others
Stage 4: responding to what is seen as ones duty through obedience to law

Post conventional:
Stage 5: understanding of social interaction and genuine interest in others
Stage 6: based on respect for universal principles and the demands of individual conscience

2

Freud: conscience as an aspect of the super ego:

Super ego: “inner parent” place where parents moral commands are stored

Internalised so cannot escape them

Conscience= negative aspect of the super ego, expressing itself consciously or unconsciously as guilt or shame

3

Durkheim: conscience as sanctions or social conditions


Collective conscience: an act is bad because it opposes the views of society and of the common conscience

People sticking to shared moral values leads to a society becoming stronger

Conscience: perceived loyalty to a particular group
Eg guilt about food
In fear of society judging you for being too fat or too thin

4

Fromm: authoritarian and humanistic conscience

Authoritarian: internalised response based on fear to the demands of an authoritarian soviety. Disobedience creates guilty conscience.
Eg nazis manipulation of German conscious to not feel guilty about Jews


Humanistic: seeks and understands what will lead human and social flourishing. Challenges elements of society that are destructive of human well being. Intuitive knowledge. Innate sense of right and wrong expressed.

5

Augustine and Schleiermacher: innate voice of god

Augustine: put into human minds by god so it amounts to an innate knowledge of gods moral laws

Schleiermacher: innate voice of god therefore must always be obeyed, takes priority over everything else.

6

Aquinas: conscience as god given faculty of reason.

“Mind of man making moral judgements”

Humans have natural inclination to synderesis rule: do good and avoid evil

2 aspects of conscience:

>using practical reason to acquire knowledge and understanding of Primary precepts of natural moral law

> distinguishing between right and wrong and making ethical judgement in each situation using secondary precepts

Mistaken through ignorance:
> vincible ignorance: don’t make every effort to be aware of and understand church teaching = sin

>invincible ignorance: made every effort but ambiguity in church teaching= not a sin

Once conscience has made judgement must be obeyed

7

Fletcher:

Conscience is a verb


“Conscience is merely a word for our attempt to make decisions creatively, constructively and fittingly”

8

Butler; conscience as a god given faculty: intuitive, reflective and autonomous

Conscience = enables us to assess what is right and to keep balance between self love and altruism. Thus enabling us to decide what is right and wrong.

Reflection: given by god and works closely with conscience