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Flashcards in consciousness Deck (22):


-a state of mind
- a subjective experience of the world, physical body and cognitive processes


notion that body and mind are not separate



notion that the body and mind are separate




perception of internal events and the external environment


4 types of awareness

self awareness- consideration of our own thoughts and behaviours from an insider perspective
attention - selects and enhances relevant or new info and ignores irrelevant information
hypervigilance - heightened state of attention to external cues usually experienced under threat
metacognition- thinking consciously about your own thoughts, consciousness or thought processes


levels of awareness

non-conscious process - bodily activities we are aware of and many of which we can control i.e. breathing, muscle tension
pre-conscious memories - memories that can easily become conscious after a shift in attention
unattended info- an unconscious representation of information that is not the focus of your attention
unconscious- information and processes of which we are unaware, that may influence our behaviour but are typically benign


functions of consciousness

aiding survival and creating reality


experimental methods to study consciousness

response change - SLP techniques
think aloud
experience sampling


theories of consciousness

1. freud - human consciousness typically functions automatically with most stimuli ignored
- consciousness can be divided in three levels all active and serving a different purpose: conscious, preconscious, unconscious
2. ornstein- human consciousness typically functions automatically with most stimuli ignored
-consciousness is divided into two modes: active and receptive
3. dennet - consciousness develops through constant memorizing and subsequent updating of experience
4. pinker - consciousness is developed and proliferated because it has survival value


parapraxis (freudian slip)

a form of spoonerism wherein a repressed idea accidentally slips out often w/o speaker knowing


considerations for consciousness

1. sentience- ability to feel, perceive or experience subjectivity
2. access - ability to report on content and product of rational thought
3. self-knowledge - ability to recognize one's experience s are unique



a non waking state of consciousness characterized by nonresponsiveness to the environment and general physical immobility


circadian rhythm

internal 24 hour biological clock that functions at a cellular level


STages of sleep

stage 1; light sleep, mostly theta brain waves that are low in amp and are fast, with mixed frequencies; person is easily awakened
stage 2; low amp, non rhythmic brain wave activity; shows sleep spindles and k complex or a higher amp burst of activity
stage 3; involves brain waves that are slower and higher in amp, includes low freq, high amp delta waves
stage 4; deepest type of sleep and over 50% of waves are delta
REM sleep; occur periodically after stages 1-4 lasting ~10 mins; associated w dream like activity; tonic immobility paralysis; previously called paradoxical sleep


non REM sleep

-occurs during the first 4 stages of sleep cycle, lasting ~90 mins
-lower levels of EEG activity


sleep debt

biologically accounted for sleep deprivation we all suffer because of modern society
-the longer dperivation the greater the effect


sleep hygiene

behaviours related o presence or absence of a healthful sleep-wakefulness cycle


elements of sleep hygiene

avoid naps
avoid stimulants
avoid alcohol
avoid large meals
avoid unnecessary light
adequate exposure to natural light
bedtime routine
bed and sleep
sleep environment



state of consciousness that occurs during REM sleep usually accompanied by vivid imagery
NREM dreams also occur but not as frequent


dream theories

psychoanalytic - freud felt dreams expressed desires, wishes and unfulfilled needs in the unconscious
- jung felt dreams were natures way of allowing access to the unconscious
cognitive theories - dreams reflect the same kind of thinking people do when awake
biological theories- dreams and consciousness may have a biological basis with no hidden content or meaning
non-western theories- dream sharing and interpretation is an important cultural practice
-represent vision of the future
-contemporary theories - activation synthesis model: dreams are random bursts of neural activity; brain's attempt to form a narrative around parts of life prominent during REM sleep


sleep disorders

narcolepsy; irresistible compulsion to fall asleep during daytime and associated with cartoplexy and automatic REM states
sleep apnea; breathing stops during sleep for at least 15 secs caused an awakening based on hormonal response from oxygen deprivation
insomnia; chronic failure to get adequate sleep; inability to fall asleep or stay asleep
sleep walking -people leave their beds and wander while asleep; associated w NREM sleep
night terrors- panic attacks occurring within an hour of falling asleep usually during transition from stage 3-4 of sleep; usually involves screaming
sleep paralysis- period of involuntary immobility just after falling asleep or before waking up



terrifying dreams that do not produce panic attacks and are more cerebral in fear-inducing their content
-occur several hours into sleep
-emotionally disturbing, highly variable and typically force at least a partial awakening