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Flashcards in learning Deck (16):
1

learning

a relatively permanent change in an organism that occurs as a result of experiences in the environment

2

introspection

people's verbal reports of their own sensations, images and feelings

3

habituation

a decrease in behavioural response when a stimulus is presented repeatedly

4

instinctive drift

tendency for animals to go back to their innate behaviours after reinforcement

5

classical conditioning

-ivan pavlov
-a systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned
-key characteristic is to use of an originally neutral stimulus to elicit a response (acquisition process)

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components of classical conditioning

unconditioned stimulus - stimulus that elicits response without conditioning
unconditioned response- natural response to UCS
conditioned stimulus - a neutral stimulus through repeated associations w/ a UCS is able to generate a response
conditioned response - response to CS

7

classical conditioning applications

1. higher order conditioning- neutral stimulus takes on conditioned properties through pairings with conditioned stimulus
2.stimulus generalization - conditioned response becomes associated with a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus
3. stimulus distinction- organism learns to respond only to a specific stimulus
4. extinction- conditioned stimulus no longer generates the conditioned response
5. spontaneous recovery- conditioned response reappears after a passage of time
6. aversive conditioning - using an undesirable stimulus to to stop behaviour (taste aversion)

8

operant conditioning

- thorndlike and . skinner
- the probability a behaviour will increase or decrease depends on the reinforcement or punishment that follows

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Thorndlike's Law of Effect

response followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable than a response followed by dissatisfying consequences

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two ways operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning

-behaviour is voluntary rather than reflexive
-consequences follow rather than simultaneously occurring with behaviour

11

reinforcer

stimuli that when made contingent on a behaviour increases the chance of that behaviour

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punisher

stimuli that when made contingent on a behaviour, decreases the chance of that behaviour

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key variables for operant conditioning

strength of consequences - the greater the reward, the harder, longer and faster a person will complete the task
timing - the shorter the interval the greater the likelihood the behaviour will be learned
reinforcement schedules - how frequent or consistent reinforcers//punishers are applied

14

observational learning

learning that occurs as a function of observing classical or operant conditioning in others
-also referred to as "social learning theory"

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modelling

process that includes imitation but also an observers who matches his/her behaviour to a model through an internal representation of that behaviour

16

key variables for observational learning

type and power of model - models similar to learner, model the learner aspires to become and the model learner considers powerful
learner's personality and degree of independence - increased critical thinking and independence reduces observational learning
the situation - similarity and familiarity of the situation can differentially influence observational learning