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Flashcards in Construction Terms Deck (325):
1

Absorption field

A drainage system consisting of a series of pipes laid in trenches filledwith sand, gravel or crushed stone, through which septic tank effluent may seep or leachinto the surrounding ground.

2

Acoustical tile

A ceiling or wall tile finishing material with an inherent property toabsorb sound; usually made of mineral, fiber, or insulated metal materials.

3

Addition

Part of building added or joined to an existing building. Living areas built ontoresidence after original construction; single wall in common with residence, usually onlyone door connects the two.

4

Aggregate

Any of various hard, inert materials, like sand, gravel, or pebbles added to acementing or bonding agent to make concrete, plaster, etc.

5

Anchor bolt

Long bolts cemented into the top of a foundation wall, and to which the sillof the structure is bolted.

6

Apartment hotel

A building designed for non-transient residential use divided intodwelling units similar to an apartment house, but having such hotel accommodations asroom furnishings, lounges, public dining room, maid service, etc.

7

Apartment house

A multi-family residence containing three or more non-transient residential living units and generally providing a number of common facilities and services.

8

Apron

A finish strip applied below the stool of a window to cover the rough plaster ordrywall edge. A paved or hard packed area abutting a garage door or other opening.

9

Arcade

A series of arches and their supports, which provides covered passage between buildings. A roofed walkway or passageway, frequently with shops on both sides.

10

Arch

A curved structural member used to span an opening, so designed that vertical loads are transmitted as vertical or oblique stresses on either side of the opening.

11

Areaway

An uncovered space next to a building, for entrance of light, air or access.

12

Asbestos cement

A mixture of asbestos fibers, Portland cement, and water which can be formed into building products with high fire and weather resistance.

13

Ashlar

A wall facing of masonry slabs (stone, terra cotta) applied over the bearing masonry of exterior walls.

14

Asphalt

Bitumen mixed with mineral aggregates used as a hard surface for driveways, streets, etc.

15

Asphalt flooring

Consists of limestone dust and coarse aggregate incorporated with either asphaltic bitumen or equal proportions of asphaltic bitumen and asphalt.

16

Attic

An unfinished or semi-finished portion of a building lying between the highest finished story and the roof and wholly within the roof framing.

17

Awning

A roof-like shelter extending over a doorway window, porch, etc., which provides protection from the sun or rain.

18

Backfill

The material used for refilling an excavation.

19

Backing

Rough inner face of a wall; earth deposited behind retaining wall.

20

Backup

The inner, load bearing or structural portion of a masonry wall, usually finished with face brick, stone, ashlar, stucco or other decorative or protective veneer.

21

Balcony

A balustraded or railed elevated platform projecting from the wall or a building ,usually cantilevered or supported by columns.

22

Balusters (bannisters)

A short pillar or post, usually circular, slender above and building below, supporting a rail; the uprights supporting the handrail of a staircase.

23

Balustrade

A row of balusters surmounted by a rail, coping or cornice.

24

Base molding

Finishing wood to cover construction joints between baseboard and floor.

25

Basement

A building story which is wholly or partly below grade level.

26

Batten

Narrow strips of wood or other material used to finish and cover the vertical joints where two boards meet.

27

Batter board

One of a pair of horizontal boards nailed to posts set at the corners of anexcavation, used to indicate the desired level of the foundation, also as a fastening forstretched strings to indicate outlines of foundation walls.

28

Bay

(1) a horizontal area division of a building usually defined as the space betweencolumns or division walls; (2) an internal recess formed by causing a wall to project beyondits general line.

29

Bay window

A window, or group of continuous windows projecting from the main wall ofa building. A bay window has its own foundation.

30

Beam

(1) a long structural load-bearing member which is placed horizontally or nearly soand which is supported by both ends, infrequently, at intervals along its length; (2) a principal load supporting member of a building; may be of wood, steel, or concrete; transmits load horizontally to vertical posts, columns, or bearing walls.

31

Beam, spandrel

A wall beam supporting the wall above, as well as the floor.

32

Bearing area

The area of contact between a bearing member (beam, girder, footing) andits underlying support (column bearing wall, load bearing ground).

33

Bed

Horizontal surface on which structural members or slabs are laid or supported.

34

Bent

A transverse frame of a building designed to support either horizontal or verticalloads.

35

Beveled wood siding

Siding board of varying widths, with lower edge thicker thanupper edge is covered by lower edge of board above. Types include Dolly Varden, andshiplap.

36

Board foot

A unit of measure represented by a board one foot long, one foot wide, andone inch thick, or 144 cubic inches.

37

Boiler

Metal vessel for heating water for generating steam.

38

Bolster

A horizontal timber on a post for lessening the free span of a beam.

39

Bond

The arrangement of individual masonry units in certain overlapping patterns togive the finished structural unit additional strength and to allow the individual elements toact together as a cohesive, integrated unit.

40

Brace

A structural member reinforcing a frame or truss.

41

Bridging

A method of bracing floor joists by fixing lateral members between the joists.

42

Building

Any structure partially or wholly above ground designed to shelter people,animals or goods.

43

Building, fireproof

A building in which all parts carrying loads or resisting stresses(frame) and all exterior and interior wall, floors, and staircases are made of incombustiblematerials and in which all metallic structural members are encased in materials which remain rigid at the highest possible temperature in case its contents are burned, or whichprovide ample insulation from such a temperature.

44

Building, paper

Tarred felt paper sheathing for walls and roofs, to stop drafts andinsulate against dampness.

45

Building service systems

Those units or systems providing plumbing, sewerage,heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, power, vertical transport, fire protection andspecial services such as public address or oxygen to a building.

46

Building, single-purpose

A building designed for a specific purpose that cannot be usedfor another purpose without substantial alterations, e.g., a theater or church.

47

Built-ins

Items like cabinets, counters, desks, benches, shelving and equipmentpermanently attached to the building structure that cannot be removed without leavingevidence of removal. These items are not considered personal property.

48

Built-up roofing

Two or more layers of tarred felt, joined with bonding or sealing compound.

49

Bulkhead

A retaining structure of timber, steel, or reinforced concrete erected along thewater for shore protection. Solid fill is usually placed behind it to extend the shore to thebulkhead line.

50

Bungalow

One-story dwelling unit somewhat more pretentious than a cottage.

51

Buttress

An external structure, usually brick or stone, built against a wall to support orreinforce it.

52

Caisson foundation

A foundation system where holes are drilled in the earth to bearingstrata and then filled with concrete.

53

Chamfer

To bevel or round off a right angle corner.

54

Canopy

An ornamental roof-like covering supported by posts or suspended from a wall.

55

Cant strip

A wedge or triangular-shaped piece, generally installed on flat roofs aroundperimeter or at the junction of that roof and an adjoining wall.

56

Cantilever

A structural member projecting horizontally well beyond its vertical support.

57

Cap

The capital or uppermost part of a column or post; its function is to transmit supported loads to the column.

58

Casement window

A type of window having a sash with hinges on one side, allowing window to open vertically like a door.

59

Catch basin

A chamber designed in a drainage system to intercept solids and prevent their entrance into the system.

60

Causeway

A raised or paved way (road).

61

Cavity wall

A masonry or concrete wall consisting of two wythes with air space between them; the inner and outer wythes are tied together with metal ties.

62

Cellular concrete

Cement based concrete, mixed with fine sand and large amounts of air pockets no aggregate. Lightweight.

63

Chimney cap

A large stone or formed concrete which finishes the top of a chimney.

64

Chimney pots

Cylindrical earthenware pots at the top of the chimney shaft.

65

Clapboard

Siding board of varying widths, with lower edge thicker than upper edge that is covered by lower edge of board above.

66

Cleat

A strip fastened across something to give strength or hold in position.

67

Clerestory window

A window or series of windows in a wall above the primary roofline; designed to provide additional lighting and ventilation for the central part of the building.

68

Cofferdam

A temporary box-like structure used to hold back water or earth while work is being done inside it.

69

Column

(1) a structurally isolated vertical member which is at least eight to ten times as long as its least lateral dimension designed to carry loads. (2) a vertical structural member supporting horizontal members (beams, girders) designed to transmit load to bearing material at base of column.

70

Common brick

Local inexpensive clay brick, no uniform face or precision mold.

71

Composition siding

A manufactured wall covering, often finished in an imitation brick pattern.

72

Concrete

A hard stone-like material made by mixing sand, an aggregate such as crushed stone or gravel, cement, and water, and allowing the mixture to harden.

73

Concrete block

Concrete formed into the shape of a block and allowed to set until it hardens. Used as a masonry unit.

74

Conduit

A pipe or tube. An artificial tunnel used to enclose wires or pipes or to convey water or other fluids.

75

Construction, brick

A type of construction where the exterior walls are bearing walls(q.v.) made of solid brick and tile masonry.

76

Construction, brick veneer

A type of construction where the exterior walls are one-layer brick curtain walls backed by a wood frame.

77

Construction, mill

A type of construction where the exterior walls are substantial masonry bearing walls, the structural members are of heavy timber and further characterized by an open design and other safeguards against fire hazards.

78

Construction, reinforced concrete

A type of construction where the principalstructural members, such as the floors, columns, etc., are made of concrete poured aroundisolated steel bars or steel meshwork in such manner that the two materials act together inresisting forces.

79

Construction, steel frame

A type of construction where a framework of steel structuralmembers for the support of all loads and the resistances of all stresses.

80

Construction, wood frame

A type of construction in which there is a framework ofwooden structural members for the support of all loads and the resistance of all stresses.

81

Continuous windows

Windows designed for saw-tooth roofs or roof monitors of industrial buildings; generally top hinged and opened by mechanical operators.

82

Coping

A special capping at the top of a wall, serving principally as a watershed.

83

Corbel

A supporting bracket of stone, brick or wood projecting from side of wall.

84

Cornice

A projecting element at the top of a wall, serving principally as a decoration oras part of the coping.

85

Cottage

One-story to two-story dwelling unit of small size and humble character.

86

Course

A uniform horizontal layer of brick, stone, terra cotta, shingles, or some otherstructural material, extending continuously around a building or along a wall.

87

Court

An open space bordered on two or more sides by the walls of a single building, or oftwo or more buildings, and by a lot line or a yard on any side not so bordered.

88

Craneway

The steel or concrete column and girder supports and rails on which a cranetravels. Oftentimes the craneway is attached to the building frame.

89

Crawl space

An unfinished, accessible space below the first floor, generally less than full story height.

90

Cupola

A small building-like structure on a roof.

91

Curtain wall

An exterior wall that encloses but does not support the structural frame of a building.

92

Damp proofing

The coating of a surface to prevent the passage of moisture.

93

Dead load

The weight of the structure itself plus any permanent fixed loads.

94

Dome

A roof shaped like a hemisphere or inverted bowl, so constructed as to exert equal oblique thrust stresses in all directions.

95

Dormer

1) a relatively small structure projecting from a sloping roof, 2) a window set upright in the face of such a structure.

96

Double hung window

A type of window containing two movable sash sections that slide open vertically.

97

Double tee

A structural member of pre-cast concrete composed of two beams connected by a common slab.

98

Double wall

An exterior frame wall with siding, sheathing and interior lining.

99

Downspout

A pipe for carrying rainwater from roof gutters to the ground or the storm sewer system.

100

Drain tile

Burnt clay tile pipe, rendered impervious to water by glazing; laid with loose unsealed joints or plastic perforated pipe laid next to the foundation wall for drainage.

101

Dressed and matched

Boards which are finished, or dressed on 1 or 2 sides and tongue and grooved on the edges.

102

Drilled caisson

A hole drilled into the ground then filled with concrete. Depending on soil conditions, a pipe lining may be included.

103

Drip edge

A projecting part of a sill or cornice that sheds rainwater and protects structural parts below.

104

Drop panel

In reinforced concrete slab construction, a thickened portion of the ceiling around a column head for load distribution.

105

Drywall construction

Any type of interior wall construction not using plaster as a finish material; e.g., wood paneling, plywood, plasterboard, or other type of wallboard.

106

Duct

A pipe to convey warm or cooled air; pipe containing electrical wires or cables.

107

Dwelling

Any building or portion thereof designed or occupied in whole or in part as a place of residence.

108

Dwelling, attached

A multi-family dwelling where the dwelling units are separated vertically by means of common or party walls. See “terrace.”

109

Dwelling, double

A two-family dwelling that the dwelling units are separated vertically, by means of a common or party wall.

110

Dwelling, duplex

A two-family dwelling in which the two dwelling units are separated horizontally with a private street entrance for each; i.e., a two-family flat.

111

Dwelling, multi-family

A building designed as a place of residence for more than two families or households; e.g., an apartment house or tenement.

112

Dwelling, row

Any one of a series of similar single-family, two-family, or multi-family dwellings having one or more contiguous common, or party walls.

113

Dwelling unit

Any room or group of rooms designed as the living quarters of one family or household, equipped with cooking and toilet facilities, and having an independent entrance from a public hall or from the outside.

114

Eaves

The portion of a sloping roof projecting beyond the wall of a building.

115

Elevation

A drawing representing a projection of any one of the vertical sides or vertical cross-sections of a building or of any other object.

116

Excavation

A hole or hollow dug in the earth.

117

Facade

The face of a building, especially one that is decorative or imposing.

118

Face brick

Generally, a hard burned brick of smooth or rough-texture face, of selected color and size; used to finish the exterior walls of a building.

119

Fascia

Any relatively broad flat vertical surface like that on the outside of a cornice. A finishing board used to conceal rafter boards.

120

Felt paper

A paper sheathing on walls and roofs insulating against heat, cold and dampness.

121

Fenestration

The design and disposition or arrangement of windows or other openings in building walls.

122

Fiber plank

A decking material composed of wood fibers with moisture and fire-resistive binders often used with bulb tees.

123

Fiberboard

Fine spun filaments of glass made into yarn, used in wooly masses as insulation. May be added to gypsum or concrete products to increase tensile strength.

124

Fill

The material used to equalize or to raise topography to a desired grade.

125

Firebrick

A brick made of fire clay that is capable of resisting high temperatures; used toline heating chambers and fireplaces.

126

Fire door

Door consisting of a core and external surfaces especially constructed toprevent the spread of fire.

127

Fireproofing

The use of incombustible materials to protect structural components of abuilding so it can withstand a complete burnout of contents without losing structuralintegrity.

128

Firewall

A wall of fire-resisting material erected between two parts of a building toprevent the spread of fire from one part to the other.

129

Flashing

Small metal strips used to prevent leaking of roofs around chimneys, dormers,hops and valleys.

130

Flat

Any one floor of a building two or more stories high each floor of which constitutes asingle dwelling unit and has a private street entrance.

131

Float finish

The surface of concrete finished by a continuous spreading of the materialwith a flat board.

132

Floating foundation

(Mat, raft or rigid foundation) consists of concrete slabs usually 4 to 8 inches thick covering the entire foundation area.

133

Floor finish

Top, or wearing surface made of hardwood, linoleum, terrazzo, tile, or otherfinish materials.

134

Flue

The duct or space within a chimney through which combustion gases and smoke areallowed to escape.

135

Flue lining

The tile or pipe inside a chimney.

136

Fluorescent light

Produced from a fluorescent-coated tube that glows as electrons passfrom one end to the other.

137

Footing

A spreading base to a wall, column, or other supporting member, which serves towiden the ground area to which structural loads are transmitted.

138

Formica

The trade name for a hard, durable plastic sheeting used for table, sink andcounter tops or for wall covering resistant to heat and chemicals.

139

Forms

The temporary panels, usually of wood, plywood, or metal that contain and controlthe shape of poured concrete until it hardens.

140

Foundation

The structural members below grade level, or below the first tier of beamsabove grade level, which transmit the load of a superstructure to the ground.

141

Foyer

The lobby of a theater or hotel; the entrance hall of a house.

142

Frame

The skeletal supporting structure of a building or construction component.

143

Frieze

A decorative horizontal band at or near the top of a wall.

144

Furring

The strips of wood or metal applied to a wall or other surface to make it level, to form an air space, or to provide fastening surface for a finish covering.

145

Gable

(1) The triangular portion of a wall between the slopes of a double sloping roof. (2) The whole of the wall containing such a triangular portion. (3) A portion of a building extending from the remainder of the building and covered with a gable roof.

146

Gambrel roof

A ridged roof, with sides having two pitches or slopes.

147

Giant tee

A structural member of pre-cast concrete composed of a beam connected to a slab.

148

Girder

(1) A large or principal beam (q.v.) used to support concentrated loads at isolated points along its length. Girders usually support the beams and structure above. (2) Any main horizontal supporting member or beam.

149

Girt

A secondary horizontal framing member extending between columns or studs to stiffen the framing system; also to provide support for the siding or sheathing.

150

Glazed concrete block

Concrete block with a glossy vitreous material surface.

151

Grade

The plane of the natural or finished surface of the ground.

152

Grade beam

A horizontal load-bearing foundation member, end-supported like a standard beam, not ground-supported like the foundation wall.

153

Granolithic

An artificial stone of crushed granite and cement.

154

Grillage

A system of beams laid crosswise to form a foundation to evenly distribute the load.

155

Groin

The sharp curved edge formed at the junction of two intersecting vaults.

156

Grout

A thin, fluid mortar used to fill small joints and cavities in masonry work.

157

Gutter

A trough or channel along or under the roof eaves which carries rainwater to downspouts or conductors.

158

Gypsum

A common mineral, hydrated calcium sulfate, found in rocks; used in plaster of Paris.

159

Gypsum plank

A lightweight pre-cast roof deck of gypsum core with steel mesh reinforcement.

160

Gypsum plaster

Substance obtained by heating gypsum that sets in a firm, hard masswhen mixed with water.

161

Gypsum wallboard

A prefabricated sheet used in drywall construction as a substitute for plaster. Made of gypsum covered with paper that can be painted, textured or wallpapered.

162

Hardboard

Boards formed by combining shredded wood chips and glue with pressure.

163

Header

1) A structural member which is laid perpendicularly to a parallel series ofsimilar members and against which the latter members abut. 2) A brick or other piece ofmasonry laid in a wall in such manner that its longest dimension extends along thethickness of the wall.

164

Hearth

The floor of a fireplace.

165

Heat exchanger

Cylinder with coils in it; used to transfer heat from one gas or liquid to another.

166

Hip

(1) A sloping line along which two roof surfaces meet to form an external angle ofmore than 180 degrees. (2) A hip rafter (q.v.). Compare “Ridge”; “Valley.”

167

Hotel

A building designed for transient or semi-transient residential use, divided intofurnished single rooms and suites and having such accommodations as lounges, publicdining rooms and maid service, etc.

168

Hotel, apartment

See “Apartment hotel.”

169

I-beam

Steel beam with cross section resembling the letter “I” now designated “S” for American Standard Beam.

170

Incandescent light

Light emitted from a lamp with a fine wire filament which produceslight as a current passes through it.

171

Insulating board or fiberboard

A building board made of compressed plant fibers suchas wood, cane or cornstalks, usually formed by a felting process, dried and pressed tospecified thickness.

172

Insulation

Any material used to reduce the transfer of heat, cold or sound.

173

Jack rafter

Shorter than a full-length rafter. Is found in hip roofs where the top edge of aroof slope is not horizontal, and in roofs with valleys.

174

Jalousies

Adjustable glass louvers in doors or windows to regulate light and air orexclude rain.

175

Jamb

The side framing or finish of a doorway or window.

176

Joist

One of a series of small parallel beams laid on edge and used to support floor andceiling loads, and usually supported in turn by larger beams and girders.

177

Keene’s cement

A white, hard finish durable plaster that sets quickly; used in bathrooms and kitchens.

178

Keystone

The central topmost stone or piece of an arch which holds the other in place.

179

King post

The vertical member at the center of a triangular truss.

180

Lally column

A concrete filled steel pipe used as a vertical framing support.

181

Lath

Strips of wood or expanded metal used as base for plaster walls.

182

Lattice

Any openwork panel of crossed strips, rods, or bars of wood or metal, used as a screen.

183

Leader

Pipe to conduct rainwater from roof gutters to ground or storm sewer system.

184

Lean-to

A small structure with a single pitch roof; built against an outside wall of a building.

185

Light

A window pane or section of a window sash for a single pane of glass.

186

Lintel

A beam over a wall opening, such as a door or window, designed to carry the load of the wall over such opening.

187

Live load

Any moving or variable load applied to a structure, expressed in pounds per square foot of floor areas for various types of building occupancy.

188

Load bearing wall

Weight of wall and portion of floor/roof load are supported by the wall, remainder is supported by the interior framing.

189

Lobby

An entrance passage or waiting area in a theater, hotel or other public building.

190

Loft

An unpartitioned or relatively unpartitioned upper story of a building, designed for storage, wholesaling, or light manufacturing.

191

Lookout

A short timber support for an overhanging roof at a gable.

192

Louver (or louvre)

A ventilator containing slats placed lengthwise across the ventilator opening, each slat being slanted in such manner as to overlap the next lower slat and topermit ventilation but exclude rain.

193

Luminous ceiling

A suspended ceiling of translucent materials, above, which is installeda system of fluorescent tubes, making the entire ceiling the source of light, a practice thatgreatly reduces glare and shadows.

194

Mall

Originally a shaded walk. Now adopted to designate an area for pedestrians in aretail section or shopping center.

195

Mansard roof

A roof with two slopes or pitches on each of the four sides, the lower slopessteeper than the upper. Convenient for adding another story to a building.

196

Marquise

A flat roof-like structure sheltering a doorway, having no floor beneath it andis usually supported wholly from the walls or the building.

197

Masonry

Anything constructed of stone, brick, concrete tile, concrete block, using mortaras a bond.

198

Mastic

An adhesive material used to cement two surfaces together. Flooring materialsapplied to the base floor in a stiff plastic state by spreading, rolling and troweling.

199

Mercury vapor lamp

Produced by an electric arc discharging through mercury vapor in a tube. White light.

200

Metal pan joist

A floor or roof system using metal pans to form a system of closelyspaced beams and connecting slabs.

201

Mezzanine

Low story formed by placing a floor between what would ordinarily be thefloor and ceiling of a high story.

202

Mill construction

A type of fire-resistant or slow burning construction; masonry, heavytimber framing, and planked or laminated wood floors much thicker than ordinary joistconstruction.

203

Millwork

All of the wooden portions of a building, whether frame construction or otherwise, which are customarily purchased in finished form from a planing mill, such asdoors, windows, trim, balusters, etc.

204

Mineral wool

Insulation material made by blasting molten slag or rock with steam. Suchmaterials are known as rock wool, glass wool, etc.

205

Molding (moulding)

A curved section formed in the edge or face of wood and/or stone,chiefly for the sake of ornament. Mostly used to fill corners. Classified by its purpose (bed,crown, shingle) or by design, cove, ogre, quarter-round.

206

Monitor roof

A raised structure on a roof having windows or louvers for ventilating orlighting a building such as a factory or warehouse.

207

Monolithic

Poured floor or structure in one piece.

208

Mortar

The bonding agent in masonry work made of lime, sand, and cement mixed with water.

209

Newel

The vertical post that the steps of a winding staircase turn. The post at the top orbottom of a staircase supporting the handrail or a balustrade.

210

Non-bearing wall

A wall that supports only its own weight.

211

On center

The distance from the center of one structural member to the center of another. Term used for spacing studs, joists, rafters, etc.

212

Oriel

Window type; ordinarily projects beyond exterior face of wall; octagonal or hexagonal in plan, commonly corbelled or cantilevered out.

213

Overhang

A finished portion of a building having full story height that extends beyondthe foundation wall line if part of the ground story, or beyond the exterior walls of theground story if part of any higher story.

214

Overhead structure

Similar to overhang above ground story, such as overhead pedestrian walkway.

215

Panic device

Door opening operator usually consisting of a door-wide bar at waist heightwhich, when pushed against, pulls back the door latching mechanism allowing the door to open.

216

Parapet

A low wall along the edge of a roof, balcony, ridge, or terrace. Also a parapet wall.

217

Parging

A coating of cement on a masonry wall, frequently used to waterproof theoutside surface of a basement wall.

218

Parquet floor

A hardwood floor laid in small rectangular or square patterns, not in long strips.

219

Partition

See “Wall, partition.”

220

Penthouse

A structure or enclosure on a roof for housing stairway to roof, elevatormachinery, utility room or water tank.

221

Pier

(1) A thick, solid mass of masonry that is fully or partially isolated from a structuralstandpoint and which is designed to transmit vertical loads to the earth; (2) a structureprojecting from land into water for use in loading and unloading vessels. Compare “Column.”

222

Pilaster

A flat-faced pillar projecting somewhat from but engaged in, the wall of abuilding and used for decorative purposes or to help support truss and girder loads or both.

223

Pile

A heavy timber, metallic, or masonry pillar forced into the earth to form a foundationmember.

224

Pitch

The slope of any structural member, such as a roof or rafter, usually expressed as asimple fraction representing the rise per lateral foot.

225

Plan

A drawing representing a projection of any one of the floors or horizontal cross-sections of a building or of the horizontal plane of any other object or area. Compare “Elevation.”

226

Plaster

A mixture of lime, sand and water. Used as a finished surface for walls and ceilings.

227

Plate

A horizontal structural member laid across the top of a row of studs, serving as theframe for interior partitions, and exterior walls. The purpose of a plate is 1) to providelateral rigidity for the wall by “tying” the studs together and 2) to serve as a support forupper story floor joists, ceiling joists and as the lower support for rafters.

228

Plumb (bob)

Exactly perpendicular vertical.

229

Plywood

A fabricated wood product constructed of three or more layers of veneer joinedwith glue; usually laid with grain of adjoining piles at right angles.

230

Porcelain

A vitrified, glass-like, coating of ceramic materials bonded to a base metal by fusion.

231

Post

A vertical structure member carrying stresses in compression, used where strengthin bending is not a requisite.

232

Pre-cast concrete

Concrete structural components that are cast separately, either at aseparate location or on a building site; not formed and poured in place in the structure.

233

Pre-engineered building

A building constructed of pre-designed, pre-manufactured,and pre-assembled units such as wall framing, floor and roof panels. Pre-engineered unitsare simply erected at the construction site.

234

Pre-stressed concrete

A structural member with reinforcing strands placed under tension either before or after the concrete sets.

235

Purlin

A beam running along the underside of a sloping roof surface and at right anglesto the rafters, used to support the common rafters, and usually supported in turn by largerstructural members, such as trusses or girders (usually run along length of building).

236

Radiant heat

Heat transmitted from heated surface by radiation rather than conduction or convection.

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Rafter

Structural member placed, as a rule, in a sloping position and used as the supporting element for the structural material forming the plane of the roof.

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Rafter, hip

A rafter placed in an inclined position to support the edges of two sloping roof surfaces which meet to form an external angle of more than 180 degrees.

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Rafter, valley

A rafter placed in an inclined position to support the edges of two sloping roof surfaces which meet to form an external angle of less than 180 degrees.

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Rake

A board or molding plate along the sloping sides of a frame gable to cover the ends of the siding.

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Ramp

An inclined plane connecting two different floor levels and used in lieu of steps.

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Reinforcement

A system of steel rods or mesh for absorbing tensile and shearing stresses in concrete work, complementing the inherent compressive qualities of concrete.

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Reservoir

Below-ground fluid storage tank built with concrete walls, floor and roof.

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Residence

See Dwelling.

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Resilient tile

Flooring which includes a number of products such as asphalt, linoleum, cork, vinyl, and rubber.

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Ridge

A horizontal line along which the upper edges of two roof surfaces meet to form an external angle of more than 180 degrees.

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Rise

(1) In general, any vertical distance, (2) specifically, the rise of a roof, being the distance between the top of an exterior wall and the peak of the roof; the rise of a stair, being the distance from tread to tread.

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Roll roofing

A roofing material made of compressed fibers saturated with asphalt, supplied in rolls.

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Roof, curb (or curbed)

A roof where the pitch of the upper part of a sloping side is less than the pitch of the lower part.

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Roof, flat

A roof that is flat or sloped only enough to provide proper drainage.

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Roof, gable

A double-sloped roof having a cross section similar to the shape of the inverted letter “v”.

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Roof, gambrel

A curbed gable roof.

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Roof, hip (or hipped)

(1) In general, any roof having one or more hips, (2) usually, a roof with four sloping sides meeting along four hips or along four hips and a ridge.

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Roof, lean-to

(1) A roof having a single sloping side that is supported at the upper edge by the wall of an attached building or of a larger and higher portion of the same building, (2) any roof with a single slope.

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Roof, mansard

A roof with two slopes or pitches on each of the four sides, the lower slopes steeper than the upper. Convenient for adding another story to a building.

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Roof, monitor

A type of gable roof, commonly found on industrial buildings, having small raised portion along the ridge with openings for the admission of light and air.

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Roof, pyramid

A roof having four sloping triangular sides, usually of equal pitch, meeting together at the peak.

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Roof, saw tooth

A roof with a series of parallel sloping surfaces interspersed between a series of vertical surfaces which rise from the lower edges of such sloping surfaces and contain windows for the admission of light and air.

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Roof, single pitch

A roof with a single slope other than a lean-to roof.

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Rotunda

A circular building or room covered by a dome.

261

Rubblework

Masonry built of rubble or roughly dressed stones laid in irregular courses.

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Sandwich panel

A core of insulation covered on both sides with materials such as concrete, metal, or asbestos.

263

Sanitary sewer

A sewer carrying only waste material, not surface water.

264

Sash

The wooden or metal framework in which the glass of a door or window is set.

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Saw kerf

A notch made by a saw in a board.

266

Scratch coat

The first coat of plaster applied to a wall, scratched or scored to provide a bond of the second coat.

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Scuttle

A framed opening in a ceiling or roof, fitted with a lid or cover.

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Shake

A shingle formed by splitting a short log into a number of tapered radial sections.

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Sheathing

The covering, usually of rough lumber, placed immediately over studding or rafters.

270

Sheet piling

Planking or steel shafts driven close together vertically to form a temporary wall around an excavation.

271

Shingle

A roof or wall covering of waterproof material.

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Shoring

Structural bracing used as temporary support for a building during construction.

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Shutter

Hinged door that covers a window.

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Siding

A finish covering for exterior walls of a building.

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Sill

(1) The lower horizontal part of a door-case (the threshold) or of a window; (2) thelowest horizontal structural member of a frame building, upon which the superstructure issupported.

276

Skin wall

External wall covering of aluminum, porcelain enamel, steel or other material. Slab on ground—A building floor (usually concrete) that rests on, or touches the ground. Slate—A hard, fine-grained rock that cleaves naturally into thin, smooth-surfaced layers. Sleeper—A structural member laid horizontally on the ground or upon a masonry base as a support to a floor or other superstructures.

277

Sodium vapor light

Produced by electric current passing between electrodes in lampfilled with sodium vapor. Orange light. Soffit—The undersiding of a building member such as an arch, cornice, overhang, or stairway.

278

Soil stack

A general term for the vertical main of a system of soil, waste or vent piping.

279

Span

The horizontal clear distance between supports as between those of a bridge, or between columns of a structure.

280

Spandrel

A beam that lies in the same vertical plane as the exterior wall.

281

Specifications

A detailed description of the dimensions, materials, quantities, structural procedures, etc. applicable to a projected or completed piece of construction.

282

Staging

A temporary scaffolding to support workmen and materials during construction.

283

Stair riser

Vertical part of a step in a staircase.

284

Stair tread

The part of a step actually trodden on when stairs are climbed.

285

Stile

The upright or vertical outside piece of a sash, door or panel.

286

Storm sewer

A sewer that only carries rain or surface water.

287

Story

The portion of a building enclosed by a floor, a ceiling and the exterior walls.

288

Story, ground

The first story lying wholly above the ground level.

289

Story, half (or one-half)

(1) For buildings with a mansard or gambrel roof, a finished portion of a building which lies above the wall plate or cornice and has a usable floor areasubstantially less than that of the next lower story, (2) for all other buildings, a finishedportion of a building which is above one or more full stories which is wholly or partly withinthe roof frame and has one or more exterior walls substantially lower than the full height ofthe story.

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Story, one

A building having no finished story above the ground story.

291

Stretcher

A brick or other masonry unit laid length wise in a wall.

292

Stringer

Inclined member supporting the treads and risers of a stair.

293

Structural floor

Floors above the ground resting on walls or columns.

294

Strut

Any structural member that holds apart two or more other members by counteracting a pressure that tends to bring them together.

295

Stucco

A cement plaster used as an exterior wall surface finish; usually applied over a metal or wood lath base.

296

Stud

One of a series of small slender structural members placed vertically and used as the supporting element of exterior or interior walls.

297

Subfloor

The flooring laid directly on top of floor joists but beneath the finished floor.

298

Superstructure

The part of a building above the foundation or ground level.

299

Tenement

A building, usually of obsolete nature, designed primarily for non-transient residential use and divided into three or more dwelling units having common stairs, halls, and street entrances, and sometimes common bath and toilet rooms.

300

Termite shield

A sheet metal shield placed to prevent the entry of termites into the wooden portion of a structure.

301

Terrace

An unroofed level area covered with grass or masonry or both, raised above the surrounding ground level, and having a vertical or sloping front.

302

Terra cotta

A hard-baked pottery molded into decorative tiles, brick, etc. and used particularly for facing and trim on buildings.

303

Terrazzo

A durable floor finish made of small chips of colored stone or marble embedded in cement and polished in place to a high glaze.

304

Thickened edge slab

A type of concrete floor slab foundation where the slab is thickened around the edge in lieu of a foundation.

305

Threshold

A strip of wood, stone or metal placed beneath a door.

306

Tie

Any structural member that binds together two or more members by counteracting a stress that tends to draw them apart.

307

Tilt-up concrete panels

Concrete wall sections that are cast horizontally and tilted or lifted into building position.

308

Trim

(1) The wooden portions of a plastered room, such as the doors, windows, wainscotting, and molding, or the corresponding portions of a room finished otherwise than with plaster, (2) the contrasting elements on the exterior of a building which serve nostructural purpose but are intended to enhance its appearance; e.g., the cornice, occasionally, the hardware of a house, such as locks, hinges, doorknobs, etc.

309

Trowel finish

The surface of concrete finished by smoothing with a trowel.

310

Truss

Any of various structural frames based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle andcomposed of members subject only to longitudinal compression and tension; rigid underanticipated loads, spans large area without interior support, i.e., Bowstring, Cambered,Flat Roof, Sawtooth, Scissors and Triangular.

311

Unit heat

Heat produced by factory-built, gas or electric fired heater, which contain a fanto direct heat to a specific area.

312

Valley

A sloping line along which two roof surfaces meet to form an external angle or lessthan 180 degrees.

313

Vapor barrier

Material used to retard the passage of vapor or moisture into walls andfloors, thus preventing condensation.

314

Veneer

A thin ornamental or protective facing which does not add appreciably to thestrength of the body to which it is attached.

315

Vent (ventilator)

Allows air to circulate in areas susceptible to dampness or condensation. (Basement, foundation, attic, roof and eave.)

316

Waffle pan construction

Flat, reinforced concrete slab foundation with a grid of projections on its lower surface to give additional rigidity. Used when bearing capacity ofsoil is poor or not firm enough to support a plain flat slab foundation.

317

Wainscot (or wainscoting)

(1) A wooden facing on the lower portion of a contrastinginterior wall, (2) by extension, a facing of marble tile, or the like on the lower portion ofinterior walls.

318

Wall, bearing

A wall designed primarily to withstand vertical pressure in addition to its own weight.

319

Wall, common

A wall owned by one party but jointly used by two parties, one or both areentitled to such use under the provisions of a lease.

320

Wall, curtain

A nonbearing wall which is supported by columns, beams or other structural members, and whose primary function is to enclose space.

321

Wall, partition

An interior bearing or nonbearing wall separating portions of a story.

322

Wall, party

A wall jointly used by two parties under easement agreement and erected ator upon a line separating two parcels of land held under different ownership.

323

Wall, retaining

A wall designed primarily to withstand lateral pressures of earth orother filling or backing deposited behind it after construction.

324

Waterproofing

To render impervious to water or dampness.

325

Weep hole

A series of small holes in a retaining wall or similar structure that permitsthe drainage of water through the wall and hence reduces the pressure against the wall.