Flashcards in Constructivist - Solution-Focused, Narrative, and Collaborative Language Deck (26)
Theorists of Solution-Focused:
1. de Shazer
Major Concepts of Solution-Focused:
1. There is no absolute reality, therapists should not impose their view of "normal" on client system.
2. Co-construction and deconstruct problem-focused thinking
3. De-emphasis on history and underlying pathology and focusing on the future.
4. Finding exceptions
5. Scaling questions, miracle question
Theory of Dysfunction in Solution-Focused:
1. The meanings people attribute to behavior limits the range of alternatives they will use to deal with the situation.
2. Focus remains on problem and restricted set of behaviors.
Theory of Change in Solution-Focused:
Solutions develop out of amplifying a pattern that already works while simultaneously de-emphasizing the problem or its cause.
Stages of Therapy in Solution-Focused:
1. Initial session - attempted solutions, exceptions, miracle question, formula first session task
2. Subsequent sessions - discuss how client views changes in the problem, find exceptions, assigning tasks
3. Termination - reaching goal
Therapy is brief and can be with one person or entire family.
Stance of Therapist in Solution-Focused:
1. Directive, in control
Methods/Techniques of Solution-Focused:
2. Formula first-session task
3. Scaling questions
4. Miracle question
5. More-of-the-same assignments
Diagnosis/Assessment in Solution-Focused:
1. Identification of solution that includes goal
2. Can family identify exceptions?
3. Can family follow through on interventions?
4. Degree of focus
What is the formula first session task?
Clients assigned to observe their lives between the first and second session to notice what they would like to continue to have happen.
Theorists of Narrative:
Major Concepts of Narrative:
1. Language is all important; emphasis is on meanings.
2. Dominant story/cultural discourse, re-authoring, unique outcomes and sparkling events
3. Hermeneutics (interpretation) and Objectification.
4. Problem creates the system, problems are directional/relational. Symptoms are in the relationship between people, NOT in the person.
5. How an event is constructed is how it is experienced.
6. We can never know reality, we can only know our construction of reality.
Theory of Dysfunction in Narrative:
1. Family members participate in the problem.
2. Internalization of the problem.
3. Family unable to distinguish problem in "time"
Theory of Change in Narrative:
1. Family members realize participation in problem.
2. Time is "collapsed" to allow conditions for new responses to develop.
3. Family finds alternative solutions.
Stage of Therapy in Narrative:
1. Externalizing the problem
2. Charting relative influence (how contributing to the problem and learning to separate and control the problem)
3. Collapsing time (coherent story of externalized problem, exceptions, and the roles family members play)
4. Raising dilemmas (how would the problem continue)
5. Setting Experiments
Therapy is short-term.
Stance of Therapist in Narrative:
1. Co-creates system with family.
2. Neither direct or indirect
3. Allow clients a voice in the process of their treatment
Methods/Techniques in Narrative:
1. Questions and summaries
2. Externalizing/objectifying the problem
3. Dilemma questions, landscape-of-action questions (find sparkling events), landscape-of-meaning questions (to encourage positive self-view)
4. Escape meetings (outside of session, family working together to escape the problem)
5. Note taking and sharing
6. Therapeutic certificates and letters
Diagnosis/Assessment in Narrative:
1. Family's experience of the problem
2. Language of the family
3. Ways family members participate in the problem
Theorists of Collaborative Language Systems:
1. H. Anderson
2. T. Anderson
4. L. Hoffman
5. M. C. Bateson
Major Concepts of Collaborative Language Systems:
1. Problems are created through language, not fixed entities.
2. Postmodern, philosophical stance; non-pathologizing
3. Problem-determined system = people participating in focusing on the problem
4. Problem-dissolving therapy - once the problem is dissolved, the system organized around the problem also dissolves.
Theory of Dysfunction in Collaborative Language Systems:
1. Problems are maintained in language by a problem-determined system.
2. The view of the problem hampers any successful means of resolution.
Theory of Change in Collaborative Language Systems:
1. Generate new meaning about the problem.
2. Clients take new action to resolve the problem.
Stages of Therapy in Collaborative Language Systems:
Therapy is a continuous process.
1. Focus on language and interaction.
2. Dialogical conversation - collaboration of exchanging and discussing ideas, feelings, etc.
3. Termination is mutually and collaboratively determined.
Stance of Therapist in Collaborative Language Systems:
1. Multipartial, not knowing, honors clients' reality
3. Responsive, compassionate
4. Egalitarian partner, co-explorer
Methods/Techniques in Collaborative Language Systems:
1. Conversational questions
2. Not-knowing approach
3. Reflecting team (T. Anderson)
4. Shared inquiry
Diagnosis/Assessment in Collaborative Language Systems:
1. Co-constructed by therapist and client system through "shared inquiry", linguistic stories.
2. Focus on what client system presents.
3. Conversational questions are utilized.