Experiential - Symbolic-Experiential, Human Validation Process, and EFT Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Experiential - Symbolic-Experiential, Human Validation Process, and EFT Deck (31)
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Who are the theorists in Experiential?

1. Satir
2. Whitaker


Major Concepts of Experiential:

1. Battle for Initiative and Structure (Whitaker)
2. Open communication (Satir)
3. Use of client's and therapist's craziness (Whitaker)
4. Creativity
5. Emotional experience in the here-and-now
6. Family reconstruction
7. Individual and family growth/integration through immediate shared experience
8. Intergenerational themes
9. Self-worth (Satir)


Theory of Dysfunction in Experiential:

1. Scapegoat provides anxiety relief for families.

2. Family cannot tolerate interpersonal natural stress (ex., life cycle, FOO culture), avoidance of feelings (emotional suppression).

3. Role rigidity, lack of tolerance for difference, seek safety instead of growth.

4. Symptoms are nonverbal messages/false emotions in reaction to dysfunctional communication working in the system.


Theory of Change in Experiential:

1. Family "desperation" sign of readiness for change and change must be voluntary. (Whitaker)

2. Immediate shared experience produces new responses, allowing genuine emotions to emerge, and leading to individual growth and family cohesion.

3. Increasing family's creativity, spontaneity, and ability to play -- break down rigid expectations and unblock awareness.

4. Understanding the underlying premise of behavior to change the rules of the system. Requires honest communication and emotional expression. (Satir)


Common Stages of Therapy in Experiential:

1. Information gathering
2. Increase affective intensity and anxiety to uncover problem.
3. Clarify communication and increase expressiveness.
4. Therapist pushes for expansion of self.
5. Therapy is terminated when the goal is reached.

Include as many family members and generations as possible to promote possibility for lasting change.


Whitaker (Symbolic Experiential) Stages of Experiential Therapy:

1. Pre-treatment phase - more structured, therapist makes decisions

2. Middle phase - therapist's creativity and aliveness define therapy more than technique or structure, decisions made by consensus

3. Late phase - therapy usually ends when people stop pushing each other


Satir (Human Validation Process Model) Stages of Experiential Therapy:

1. Making contact - observations; assess clarity of communication, areas of blockage

2. Chaos - serve as model for communication; separate self from others, it is okay to be different

3. Integration - understanding parts of self and family system to change problematic patterns and embrace differences


Stance of Therapist in Experiential

1. Involved, active participant
2. Self-disclosing, existential encounters
3. Warm/caring, responsive, positive (Satir)
4. Consultant
5. Alternate provocative/stress-activator with warm/supportive (Whitaker)


Methods/Techniques of Experiential:

1. Metaphor
2. In-session genuine interaction, directives, to encourage emotional expression
3. Sculpting (Satir)
4. Family reconstruction
5. Parts party
6. Temperature reading


Diagnosis/Assessment in Experiential:

1. Degree of anxiety in family
2. Battle for structure and initiative (Whitaker)
3. Therapist's feelings in relation to family
4. Assessing degree of separateness, cross-generational triangles
5. Ability to play/experiment with other roles
6. Degree of role flexibility
7. Measure of intact competencies and resources for change
8. Test family's desire to change (Whitaker)
9. Verbal and non-verbal behavior
10. Life cycle issues


Describe the battle for structure and the battle for initiative in experiential:

Whitaker: Symbolic-Experiential Therapy

Battle for Structure = Therapist must win. Therapist decides who should attend and assumes the position of leader to block the family members from their typical patterns of behavior.

Battle for Initiative = Family wins. Therapist communicates that the responsibility for the treatment belongs to the family and heightens anxiety (ex. silence) to encourage family interaction.


What are the styles of communication identified by Satir?

Experiential - Human Validation Process Model

Dishonest ways to communicate:
1. Blaming - judging, comparing, complaining

2. Placating - pacifying, being nice/protective, defending others gently, covering up

3. Avoiding - distracting, pretending not to understand, playing weak/helpless

4. Computing - using logic, lecturing, using outside authority

Usually involve low self-esteem.

5. Leveling - "real" responding, flowing, alive; appropriate to the situation, verbally and nonverbally consistent = CONGRUENT


How did Whitaker minimize countertransference?

Experiential - Symbolic-Experiential

Sharing feelings openly with families.

If feelings are openly expressed, they are less likely to be acted out.


What is family sculpting?

Experiential - Satir: Human Validation Process Model

Psychodrama technique to foster insight. Therapist asks one member of a family to arrange the others in a tableau. It is a graphic means of portraying each person's perceptions of the family and his or her place in it.

Also used to illuminate past events.


Describe Whitaker's use of Metaphor:

Experiential - Symbolic-Experiential

Whitaker avoided concrete diagnoses/goals, thinking they could make family problems too real. Instead, he used extended metaphors to replace diagnostic terms.

Metaphorical goals encourage growth and change rather than simply recognizing a goal.


What is craziness?

Whitaker - Symbolic-Experiential

Therapist needs to be able to be irreverent, use fantasy, and function immaturely when it serves the therapy. Spontaneous creativity.

Craziness can be used to describe client behavior in place of a diagnosis or symptom.


What is the parts party?

Satir - Human Validation Process Model intervention

Individuals act out specific parts of a person's personality as that person watches. Encourages personal experience and insight, seeing how different parts operate to form an integrated whole.


What is temperature reading?

Satir - Human Validation Process Model intervention

Each day between sessions, clients express to each other their hopes and wishes, show their appreciation of one another, and discuss complaints and solutions.


Theorists of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy:

1. Greenberg
2. Johnson


Major Concepts of EFT:

1. Negative interaction cycle
2. Secondary reactive emotions


Theory of Dysfunction in EFT:

Couples hide their actual emotions and exhibit defensive or coercive emotions leading to negative interactions.


Theory of Change in EFT:

Helping the couple to access their actual emotions, enhancing the emotional bond and altering negative interactional sequences.


Stages of Therapy in EFT:

1. Cycle de-escalation - define the interaction cycle and underlying emotions

2. Changing interactional positions - Identify and express subconscious needs and wants and accept partner's experience

3. Consolidation/integration - consolidate new positions in interaction sequence

Therapy is brief.


Stance of Therapist in EFT:

1. Unconditional positive regard.
2. Focus on attachment, trust.
3. Process consultant.


Methods/Techniques of EFT:

1. Changing interactional positions.
2. Withdrawer reengagement
3. Blamer softening


Diagnosis/Assessment in EFT:

1. Assess how issues express core conflicts between separateness-connectedness and dependence-independence.

2. Identify the negative interaction cycle.

3. Access the unacknowledged feelings underlying interactional positions.


Goal of EFT:

Change experience and interactions to create a secure bond between partners.


What are major differences between experiential approaches?

Whitaker - used personality and spontaneity in reaction to families

Satir- touch, warmth, and focus on communication styles

Greenberg and Johnson - focus on attachment and primary emotions to change interactions; evidence-based


What are modernist approaches?

Believe "truth" consists of tangible sets of obervable and deducible facts and universal principles of therapeutic theory (ex. cybernetics, systems).


MRI is the only non-normative modernist model.


Which models address triangles?

Minuchin - Structural
Haley - Strategic
Milan Systemic


Which models use reframing as a therapeutic technique?

Symbolic-Experiential (Whitaker)