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Flashcards in Content 1: Biological Deck (40):
1

(1) The ability of a postsynaptic neuron to respond to the presence of a particular neurotransmitter that is released from a neighboring presynaptic neuron is dependent on which of the following conditions?

(A) The storage of the neurotransmitter in the presynaptic neuron.
(B) The ability of the neurotransmitter to penetrate the membrane of the postsynaptic neuron.
(C). The presence of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron that have an affinity for that particular neurotransmitter.
(D) Whether or not the neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory.
(E) Whether or not the postsynaptic neuron has an axon that is myelinated.

(C). The presence of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron that have an affinity for that particular neurotransmitter.

2

(8) Which of the following is chemically similar to opiates, has the ability to reduce pain, and is blocked by the action of naloxone?

(A) Norepinephrine
(B) Acetylcholine
(C) Serotonin
(D) Endorphin
(E) Dopamine

(D) Endorphin

3

(9) When stress is prolonged, the most likely result is:

(A) generalized weakening of the immune system.
(B) damage to brain areas within the pons and medulla.
(C) an increase in the level of naturally produced endorphins.
(D) intensification of the effects of natural killer cells.
(E) an increase in the number of T cells.

(A) generalized weakening of the immune system.

4

(27) The visual pathway that tells us what we are looking at is called the:

(A) corticospinal tract
(B) solitary tract
(C) spinothalamic tract
(D) dorsal stream
(E) ventral stream

(E) ventral stream

5

(32) Rapid eye movements are closely associated with which of the following?

(A) Alpha waves
(B) Delta waves
(C) Dreaming
(D) Apnea
(E) Stage II sleep

(C) Dreaming

6

(34) If a psychological disorder has a genetic basis, one would expect to find the highest concordance rate for the illness between which of the following?

(A) Mother and child
(B) Father and child
(C) Identical twins
(D) Fraternal twins
(E) Nontwin siblings

(C) Identical twins

7

(40) Kyle mixes his blue paint with Jamie's yellow paint. The resulting green color occurs because:

(A) equal stimulation of the blue receptors and the yellow receptors in the eyes produces the sensation of green
(B) blue wavelengths and yellow wavelengths add together to make green wavelengths
(C) the blue and the yellow absorb all the other wavelengths except green
(D) paints involve additive rather than subtractive mixing
(E) blue wavelengths and yellow wavelengths subtract red wavelengths equally to make green

(C) the blue and the yellow absorb all the other wavelengths except green

8

(50) Which of the following factors would best explain why monozygotic twins, raised together, nevertheless develop different personalities?

(A) Shared genetic material
(B) Non-shared genetic material
(C) Shared environments
(D) Non-shared environments
(E) Shared histories

(D) Non-shared environments

9

(60) Newlyweds Layla and Keith both have normal color vision, but Layla carries a recessive gene for color deficiency. Which of the following best describes the probabilities of color deficiency in their children?

(A) Half of their daughters will be color-deficient, but none of their sons will.
(B) Half of their sons will be color-deficient, but none of their daughters will.
(C) All of their sons and half of their daughters will be color-deficient.
(D) All of their daughters and half of their sons will be color-deficient.
(E) None of their children will be color-deficient.

(B) Half of their sons will be color-deficient, but none of their daughters will.

10

(61) An individual suffering from damage to Wernicke's area would most likely exhibit which of the following behaviors?

(A) Impaired comprehension of language
(B) An inability to determine what is socially acceptable behavior
(C) An explosive temper with even slight provocation
(D) An inability to form new memories
(E) Uncontrollable tremor of the hands

(A) Impaired comprehension of language

11

(63) A fixed action pattern is defined as a response to a:

(A) secondary reinforcer
(B) generalization gradient
(C) conditioned stimulus
(D) drop in reticular activity
(E) sign stimulus

(E) sign stimulus

12

(65) Damaging the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus in rats will:

(A) impair the ability to acquire spatial information
(B) reduce the threshold for pain resulting from injury to the limbs
(C) promote the development of maternal behavior in males
(D) interfere with the biological clock that is synchronized with light
(E) decrease aggressive behavior directed at rats of the same sex

(D) interfere with the biological clock that is synchronized with light

13

(70) According to evolutionary psychologists, which of the following is the primary reason that men tend to prefer as mates younger and more attractive women?

(A) These characteristics signal good health and ability to bear children.
(B) Modern societies all evolved from a single ancient culture in which the importance of these characteristics was noted.
(C) The believe that younger and attractive women tend to be especially attentive mothers is characteristic of many cultures.
(D) Young, attractive women arouse parental or caretaking impulses.
(E) Men's preferences have been heavily shaped by images in the mass media.

(A) These characteristics signal good health and ability to bear children.

14

(75) The [triangle] figure above illustrates:

(A) a boundary extension
(B) a geon
(C) an illusory contour
(D) a mach band
(E) a texture gradient

(C) an illusory contour

15

(78) According to Johnston and Heinz's multimode theory of attention, why is it dangerous to drive an automobile while talking on a cell phone?

(A) Driving is an automatic task, but talking require attention resources.
(B) Talking on the phone results in the filtering of all other stimuli, including those relevant to driving.
(C) People can both talk and drive effectively, but they will not be able to remember anything about either the phone conversation or events related to driving.
(D) Both talking and driving require attention resources, and adequate attentional resources may not be allocated to driving.
(E) Talking is an automatic task, but attentional resources need to be allocated to driving.

(D) Both talking and driving require attention resources, and adequate attentional resources may not be allocated to driving.

16

(79) The transformation of energy into electrical impulses is:

(A) neural processing
(B) transduction
(C) sensation
(D) a difference threshold
(E) an energy current

(B) transduction

17

(81) The action potential is triggered at which of the following parts of a neuron?

(A) Dendrite
(B) Soma
(C) Terminal button
(D) Axon hillock
(E) Spine

(D) Axon hillock

18

(82) What function is served by the white myelin sheath that may cover an axon?

(A) It protects the axon from overheating.
(B) It protects the axon from microorganisms.
(C) It increases the speed of the electrical impulses.
(D) It provides the axon with nutrients.
(E) It prohibits the axon from carrying impulses.

(C) It increases the speed of the electrical impulses.

19

(84) Gonadal hormones can act early in life to irreversibly determine a rat's mate selection through effects referred to as:

(A) activational
(B) distributional
(C) initiating
(D) organizational
(E) triggering

(D) organizational

20

(86) A neuron that receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses from its soma in the spinal cord to muscle or gland cells is called a:

(A) sensory neuron
(B) motor neuron
(C) neuroglia
(D) oligodendrocyte
(E) Schwann cell

(B) motor neuron

21

(87) The ability to recognize a once-familiar face, while still being able to accurately describe elements of the face, is a characteristic symptom of:

(A) amnesia
(B) blindsight
(C) prosopagnosia
(D) sensory neglect
(E) transcortical aphasia

(C) prosopagnosia

22

(89) Of the following, which is the most plausible source of deficits such as inability to recognize faces, tendency to ignore the left half of the body, and difficulty perceiving visual motion?

(A) Different kinds of dietary deficiencies
(B) Inadequate development through different Piagetian stages
(C) Fixation at different Freudian stages
(D) Damage to different areas of the brain
(E) Deficits of different neurotransmitters

(D) Damage to different areas of the brain

23

(100) Which of the following are two competing theories of color vision that describe events that take place at different levels of the nervous system?

(A) Frequency versus place
(B) Trichromatic versus opponent-process
(C) Specificity versus pattern
(D) Frequency versus pattern
(E) Trichromatic versus specificity

(B) Trichromatic versus opponent-process

24

(106) Damage to which area of the brain leads to a decrease in physically aggressive behavior and social rank?

(A) Lateral hypothalamus
(B) Hippocampus
(C) Amygdala
(D) Basal ganglia
(E) Medial geniculate

(C) Amygdala

25

(118) Which of the following techniques of studying the brain involves the use of x-rays?

(A) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
(B) Computed tomography (CT)
(C) Electroencephalography (EEG)
(D) Immunohistochemistry
(E) Microiontophoresis

(B) Computed tomography (CT)

26

(119) Damage to the lateral hypothalamus of rats is known to produce deficits in regulation of:

(A) respiration
(B) pupillary reflexes
(C) sleep
(D) eating and drinking
(E) oxytocin levels

(D) eating and drinking

27

(122) Participants in an experiment are asked to look at a display and to find the one straight line among a number of circles. The participants are able to find the line just as quickly among twenty circles as they are among five circles. These results suggest that finding the straight line depends on:

(A) a preattentive process
(B) serial processing
(C) shape constancy
(D) size constancy
(E) habituation

(A) a preattentive process

28

(124) Albert recently noticed that he has difficulty hearing people at crowded parties even though his hearing seems fine in quiet surroundings. He most likely has damage to his:

(A) pinna
(B) eardrum
(C) stapes
(D) oval window
(E) hair cells

(E) hair cells

29

(132) Which of the following best states the major shortcomings of the place and the frequency-matching (volley) theories of audition?

(A) Neither theory can be studied empirically.
(B) Initial evidence in support of these theories cannot be replicated.
(C) Neither theory can account for auditory disorders that are caused by structural defects in the temporal lobe.
(D) Place theory applies primarily to loud sounds, whereas frequency-matching theory applies primarily to barely audible sounds.
(E) Place theory does not explain the coding of very low frequencies, whereas frequency-matching theory does not explain the coding of very high frequencies.

(E) Place theory does not explain the coding of very low frequencies, whereas frequency-matching theory does not explain the coding of very high frequencies.

30

(138) Brain imaging techniques have shown that compared to unaffected individuals, individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have:

(A) enlarged ventricles and a reduction of the prefrontal cortex.
(B) reduced ventricles and a reduction of the parietal cortex.
(C) an enlarged parietal cortex and a reduction of the hypothalamus.
(D) lesions in the parietal lobe and increased cells in the orbital frontal cortex.
(E) lesions in the temporal lobe and increased cells in the prefrontal cortex.

(A) enlarged ventricles and a reduction of the prefrontal cortex.

31

(145) When people first sense a new stimulus, only temporary changes in neurons take place, but eventually more permanent changes occur. This is called:

(A) consolidation
(B) transduction
(C) a reverberating circuit
(D) confabulation
(E) rehearsal

(A) consolidation

32

(146) If adjacent lights flash on and off in sequence, individuals will often perceive apparent motion even though there is no motion. This experience is referred to as:

(A) linear perspective
(B) texture gradient
(C) motion parallax
(D) the phi phenomenon
(E) the Ponzo illusion

(D) the phi phenomenon

33

(153) The antianxiety effects of benzodiazepines such as diazepam result from their binding from the receptor for which of the following neurotransmitters found in the amygdala?

(A) Serotonin
(B) Acetylcholine
(C) Substance P
(D) Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
E) Norepinephrine

(D) Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

34

(164) Which of the following hormones is responsible for preparing the uterus for the implantation of an ovum that has been fertilized?

(A) Progesterone
(B) Melatonin
(C) Oxytocin
(D) Vasopressin
(E) Aldosterone

(A) Progesterone

35

(172) The full Moon looks much larger when it is just above the horizon when it is high in the sky. Which of the following is the best explanation for this phenomenon?

(A) More rods are stimulated by the Moon when it is just above the horizon than when it is high in the sky.
(B) Size judgment is based on visual cues between the viewer and the image of the Moon.
(C) Brightness constancy cues are disrupted by interfering stimulation.
(D) The image of the Moon high in the sky exceeds the difference threshold.
(E) Judgment is based on the Gestalt principle of proximity.

(B) Size judgment is based on visual cues between the viewer and the image of the Moon.

36

(183) Dr. Wang is a theorist who is interested in how a given behavior increases an organism's chance of reproductive success and perpetuates the species. Dr. Wang is most likely:

(A) an evolutionary psychologist
(B) a neuropsychologist
(C) a cognitive theorist
(D) a sociologist
(E) a learning theorist

(A) an evolutionary psychologist

37

(185) A security screener in an airport checks by hand everything that seems suspicious. It is critical that she never let any potentially dangerous item through her security checkpoint. In terms of signal detection theory, this screener is likely to make:

(A) a large number of misses and a small number of hits.
(B) a large number of hits and a large number of false alarms.
(C) a large number of misses and a large number of false alarms.
(D) a small number of hits and a small number of false alarms.
(E) a large number of correct rejections and a large number of false alarms.

(B) a large number of hits and a large number of false alarms.

38

(188) Melvin has a set of Von Frey hairs of different diameters. He starts by pressing a thin hair against a participant's toe and continues with increasingly thicker hairs until the participant feels pressure. Melvin then starts with a thick hair and uses increasingly thinner hairs until the participant does not feel pressure. Melvin is using the method of:

(A) limits
(B) adjustment
(C) constant stimuli
(D) magnitude estimation
(E) loci

(A) limits

39

(193) Which of the following is a type of glial cell that is responsible for producing the myelin sheaths that cover axons?

(A) Oligodendrocyte
(B) Astrocyte
(C) Microglia
(D) Monocyte
(E) Endothelial cell

(A) Oligodendrocyte

40

(205) Which of the following best supports the all-or-none principle of neural impulses?

(A) A neuron will fire a complete action potential once the threshold is reached.
(B) During the absolute refractory period, a neuron cannot fire again.
(C) An impulse loses strength the further it travels along an axon.
(D) Drugs affect neurons by causing them to release all stored neurotransmitters.
(E) A neuron is at its resting potential when only positive ions are inside its membrane.

(A) A neuron will fire a complete action potential once the threshold is reached.