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Flashcards in Content Deck (54):
1

Physical Growth

Adequate nutrition and exercise

2

Alcohol & Drug Abuse

Irreparable brain damage to unborn children and low birth weights are only a few causes of abnormal physical and emotional development

3

Infants: 7 months

Crawling

4

Infants: 8 months

Eating with hands (finger foods)

5

Infants: 9 months

Sit up (alone)

6

Infants: 11 months

stand up (alone)

7

Infants: 12 months

Body weight triples

10

12-15 months to 2.5 years

Toddlers (Walking, Feed Self, Self-Control, Learn through Play, expresses utilizing "no", Toilet-training)

11

Preschool

Exit of Toddlerhood-Entry into Kindergarten

14

Elementary

6-10 in girls; 6-12 in boys

17

Adolescence

Begins at 10, girls/ Begins at 12, boys

21

Behaviorism

first significant theory of development

23

John Watson

1900s; originated the behaviorist movement

25

Conditioned Response

Child was "taught" to respond in a particular way to a stimulus that would not naturally elicit that response.

26

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936)

29

Edward Thorndike

1900s; developed own form of behaviorism: Instrumental Conditioning

31

Law of exercise

Conditioned response can be strengthened by repeating the response (practice)

32

Law of effect

Rewarded responses are strengthened while punished responses are weakened

33

B.F. Skinner

Most influential behaviorist; believed students learned when teachers gave immediate positive feedback

35

Operant Conditioning

studies how voluntary behavior could be shaped

37

Positive Reinforcement

(Reward)

39

Negative Reinforcement

Students escape punishment by repeating desired responses

40

Extinction

Undesired responses are not reinforced

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Punishment

Undesired responses are punished

42

Jean Piaget

most prominent of cognitive psychologists

47

Stage theory

currently the most popular form of child development; helps you understand the general way students learn and develop concepts

48

Sensorimotor

(birth to 18 months)

51

Preoperational

(18 months to 7 years)

53

Concrete Operational

(7-12 years)

55

Formal Operational

(12+ years)

57

Sigmund Freud

Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); believed that humans pass through 4 stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, and genital and personality itself consists of the id, ego, and superego

58

Erik Eriksen

Built on Freud's work and partitioned the life span into 8 psychosocial stages, 4 of which fall within the school years: Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Identity Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation

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Inititiative vs. Guilt

Kindergarten: Children accepted and treated warmly tend to feel more comfortable; rejected children tend to become inhibited and guilty

60

Industry vs. Inferiority

Elementary Grades: Students who are accepted by their peers do well in school and are more successful than those who do not feel good about themselves

61

Identity vs. Identity Confusion

Grades 6-9: Students who establish an identity and a sense of direction and who develop gender, social, and occupational roles experience an easier transition into adulthood than those who do not establish these roles.

62

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Grades 10-12: Students who have passed successfully through the other stages will find it easier to establish a relationship with a member of the opposite sex while others may experience a difficult transition into adult life.

63

Lawrence Kohlberg

proposed three levels of moral development with two stages at each level: Preconventional Morality, Conventional Morality, and Postconventional Morality

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Preconventional Morality

(preschool and primary grades)

67

Conventional Morality

(middle grades through high school)

70

Postconventional Morality

(high school and beyond)

73

Albert Bandura

leading social learning theorist

77

modeling

when children act the way the see others act, or they learn vicariously by observing others

78

Nature vs. Nurture

nature (heredity and genes) vs. nurture (environment and experience)

81

American schools

based upon teachings of Pestalozzi and Herbart

82

Maria Montessori

established her school, Casa Bambini, in 1908

84

John Dewey

established the first "progressive" school in the 1900s

85

progressive education movement

sought to build a curriculum around the child rather than around the subject matter

88

essentialist movement

teacher-centered classroom

91

federal government

-took a more active role in the schools since the Depression of the 1930s

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Public Law 94-142/99-457

federal government's first direct intervention in school instruction

96

Public Law 98-199

mandates transitional services for high school students

98

Bruner/Process of Education

urged student's active involvement in the learning process.

101

Skinner/behaviorism

Skinner thought learning material should be broken down into small manageable steps; students taught step by step and rewarded for success

103

Piaget

posited that students go through stages as they develop concepts: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational