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Flashcards in Context of Accounting Deck (5)
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1

Financial Leverage

the use of borrowed money (debt) to finance the purchase of assets with the expectation that the income or capital gain from the new asset will exceed the cost of borrowing

2

A board of directors

governs a corporation. It is a group of people who are elected by a company's shareholders to meet periodically to oversee the company's management and represent the interests of the shareholders. The board has overall authority for decisions made by the company, but usually confines itself to the following areas:

Issuance of stock
Issuance of dividends
Naming members to various committees
Adopting and revising bylaws
Hiring or firing senior managers and setting their compensation
Setting the company's overall direction

The board of directors may be comprised of senior managers of the company, as well as outsiders with special skills that can be of assistance to the company.

A board may have several committees that deal with specialized areas of concern. For example, there may be an audit committee, compensation committee, governance committee, and risk management committee.

3

Amortization vs. Depreciation: What's the Difference?

Amortization vs. Depreciation: An Overview
The cost of business assets can be expensed each year over the life of the asset, and amortization and depreciation are two methods of calculating value for those business assets. The expense amounts are subsequently used as a tax deduction reducing the tax liability for the business. In this article, we'll review amortization, depreciation, and one more common method used by businesses to spread out the cost of an asset. The key difference between all three methods involves the type of asset being expensed.

Special Considerations
Depletion is another way the cost of business assets can be established. It refers to the allocation of the cost of natural resources over time. For example, an oil well has a finite life before all of the oil is pumped out. Therefore, the oil well's setup costs are spread out over the predicted life of the well.

With depreciation, amortization, and depletion, all three methods are non-cash expenses with no cash spent in the years they are expensed. Also, it's important to note that in some countries, such as Canada, the terms amortization and depreciation are often used interchangeably to refer to both tangible and intangible assets.

KEY TAKEAWAYS
Amortization and depreciation are two methods of calculating the value for business assets over time.
Amortization is the practice of spreading an intangible asset's cost over that asset's useful life.
Depreciation is the expensing of a fixed asset over its useful life.

4

Amortization?

Amortization is the practice of spreading an intangible asset's cost over that asset's useful life. Intangible assets are not physical assets, per se. Examples of intangible assets that are expensed through amortization might include:
Patents and trademarks
Franchise agreements
Proprietary processes, such as copyrights
Cost of issuing bonds to raise capital
Organizational costs

Unlike depreciation, amortization is typically expensed on a straight-line basis, meaning the same amount is expensed in each period over the asset's useful life. Additionally, assets that are expensed using the amortization method typically don't have any resale or salvage value, unlike with depreciation.

It's important to note the context when using the term amortization since it carries another meaning. An amortization schedule is often used to calculate a series of loan payments consisting of both principal and interest in each payment, as in the case of a mortgage.

The term amortization is used in both accounting and in lending with completely different definitions and uses.

5

Depreciation?

Depreciation is the expensing of a fixed asset over its useful life. Fixed assets are tangible assets, meaning they are physical assets that can be touched. Some examples of fixed or tangible assets that are commonly depreciated include:
Buildings
Equipment
Office furniture
Vehicles
Land
Machinery

Since tangible assets might have some value at the end of their life, depreciation is calculated by subtracting the asset's salvage value or resale value from its original cost. The difference is depreciated evenly over the years of the expected life of the asset. In other words, the depreciated amount expensed in each year is a tax deduction for the company until the useful life of the asset has expired.

For example, an office building can be used for many years before it becomes run down and is sold. The cost of the building is spread out over the predicted life of the building, with a portion of the cost being expensed in each accounting year.

Depreciation of some fixed assets can be done on an accelerated basis, meaning that a larger portion of the asset's value is expensed in the early years of the asset's life. For example, vehicles are typically depreciated on an accelerated basis.