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Flashcards in Contract Law Second Term - TERMS Deck (236):
1

what doctrine, the principal architect of which was Denning, was overruled as no longer needed due to UCTA in Photo Production Ltd v Securicor Transport Ltd?

doctrine of fundamental breach

1

St Albans City & District Council v International Computers Ltd

Insurance cover £50 mil, £100,000 (s.11(4))

2

liverpool City Council v Irwin

Breach of landlord duty, common ground

2

How many terms are in Sch.2(1) UTCCR?

17

3

Curtis v Chemical Cleaning & Dyeing Co Ltd

Wedding dress

3

what action of UCTA gives its scope?

s.2

3

What Regulation exempts certain contracts under UTCCR?

Reg.4(2)(a) and (b)

4

Thompson v LM & S Railway Co

Timetable, low threshold of notice required (had to buy etc)

4

What did Steyn say in FNB about significant imbalance under Reg.5(1)?

Means substantive unfairness

5

what is a criticism of Hollier v Rambler Motors?

not giving effect to intentions of the parties

6

when will collateral contracts/terms add to the document containing all terms?

if the 2 stage test is satisfied - intention, and causation (but for the collateral terms, would they have entered into the contract)

7

what did Hoffman say about the common law methods of controlling exemption clauses prior to UCTA in Bank of Credit and Commerce SA v Ali?

'judicial creativity bordering on judicial legislation'

7

What is the outcome of UTCCR?

Invalidates all unfair non-core terms

7

What is the main difference between OFT v Ashbourne and FNB?

Former found unreasonable and latter reasonable

8

L Harris (Harella) Ltd v Continental Express ltd v Burn Transit Ltd

No express exemption, but wide enough to cover NGL

9

what did Lord Bridge say of importance in Scally v Southern Health and Social Services Board?

only appropriate for 'circumstances postulated', giving a narrow implied term to the facts of the case only

9

parker v SE railway co

briefcase, can make presumptions (e.g. of literacy)

10

two cases on implication of terms by law

Shell (UK) Ltd v Lostock Garage Ltd, Lister v Romford Ice & Cold Storage Co Ltd

11

which case regarded the test in A-G of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd cautiously?

The Reborn, considering it a reformation, not a revolution, but too much latitude to judges to choose missing term

11

what three cases show how to distinguish between terms and representations?

Oscar Chess Ltd v Williams; Dick Bentley Productions Ltd v Harold Smith (Motors) Ltd; Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Mardon

12

who said 'standard terms of business' for s.3 UCTA is a matter of 'fact and degree'; something on which they 'habitually contract'?

Stannard J

13

what are the two advantages of standard form contracts?

reduce costs and raise consistency

13

What is contra proferentum?

Ambiguity in a term is interpreted against the person seeking to rely on it

14

what did Parke B in Hutton v Warren say about implication of terms by custom?

There needs to be 'known usage but not necessarily known to the parties'

14

Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Mardon

Thoroughfare

15

What case is OFT v Ashbourne similar to?

FNB

16

L Schuler AG v Wickman Machine Tool Sales Ltd

Lord Reid's presumption against unreasonable results

16

what schedule gives indicatively unfair list of terms in UTCCR?

Sch.2 UTCCR

17

Timeload Ltd v BT plc

Disconnect, no reason

18

when is the parole evidence rule applicable?

when express terms are contained in a document containing all the contract terms

18

Why was it considered unreasonable to limit liability to the cost of the seed in Finney Lock?

Not negotiated, fault of seller, could have got insurance and evidence others did not rely on it

19

what was the test given by Denning in Shell (UK) Ltd v Lostock Garage Ltd in reference to, and what was it?

implication of terms by law. (1) look to case law, (2) consider if reasonable to imply it if there is no case law

20

in what section of UCTA is the consumer defined?

s.12

21

What does Reg.6(2) UTCCR say about its scope?

Non-core terms; not fairness of definition of subject matter, nor adequacy of price/remuneration in 'plain, intelligible language'

22

what is the limitation-exclusion distinction in interpreting terms?

limitation clause = presumptively valid due to important role in allocating risk; exclusion = more restrictive approach

22

What does Lord Steyn conclude about the justification for implied terms in "Contract Law: Fulfilling the Reasonable Expectations of Honest Men"?

Court's view of the reasonable expectations of contracting parties

23

how are terms implied in fact?

based on unexpressed intention implied from factual context of contract

24

Who gave three possible justifications for implying terms?

Collins in "The Law of Contract"

25

what is the objective of UTCCR?

Consumer protection, so high standard of plainness and intelligibility required

25

Why was the term not found to be unfair in FNB?

Consumer was aware so no imbalance

25

What were the four main recommendations of the Law Commission's Report on Unfair Terms in Contracts, Report No.292?

Unified scheme replacing UCTA and UTCCR; unitary fair and reasonable test; extend consumer protection to all non-core terms, even when negotiated; extend protection to 'micro-businesses' where non-core non-negotiated terms are used

26

R & B Customs Brokes Co Ltd v UDT Ltd

four wheel drive

27

what does s.1(3) UCTA include?

liability for beach of obligations/duties arising from things done in the court of business or from occupation of business purposes

28

Canada Steamship Lines Ltd v The King

Rules must be followed for exemptions of negligence liability (Lord Morton)

29

What are the effects of unfairness under UTCCR?

Not binding (Reg.8(1)) or will continue to bind if possible without the term (Reg.8(2))

30

what is the point of UCTA?

To control exemption clauses, regulating liability of recognised causes of action

30

what does s.3 UCTA control?

exemption from Boc in consumer and standard form contracts

30

what are the three categories the list in Sch.2(1) UTCCR fall into?

(1) Defeating reasonable expectations e.g. (j), (2) Inadequate remedy for breach e.g. (a)&(b), and (3) unreasonable burden on consumer

31

Oscar Chess Ltd v Williams

Vintage car, no specialist knowledge on the behalf of D

31

What case law is there on Reg.5(1) Fairness?

FNB --> Steyn; substantive unfairness, Bingham; 'fair and pen dealing'

33

what are at least three exceptions to the parole evidence rule?

vitiations, collateral/implied terms and rectification

33

Rainy Sky SA v Kookmin Bank

unambiguous language

34

When was UCTA passed?

1977

35

what are the two ways courts can deal with exemption clauses?

make them entirely ineffective or reasonable

37

what type of damages are given for breach of a representation?

reliance damages (backward looking)

37

What are three possible justifications Collins gives for implying terms?

To state expressly that which was silently understood, economic analysis (courts fill gaps so parties save money) and efficiency analysis (terms which would have been agreed but for costs)

39

The Moorcock

test of necessity, jetty, risk could have been on either so business efficacy test insufficient

40

what two cases show the importance of the timing of a notice for terms in an unsigned doc to be incorporated?

olley v marlborough court ltd; thornton v shoe land parking ltd

40

what did Judge Bowsher QC say in British Fermentation Products Ltd v Compair Reavell Ltd regarding exclusion clauses?

they can be vital for allocating risk as well; 'good business common sense of the contract' as a whole

40

What is the list in Sch.2 UTCCR in practice?

presumptively unfair terms

40

What does s.9 give about the effect of breach in UCTA?

Affirmation or termination does not prevent C from relying on a clause satisfying s.11

41

what three cases show that reasonable notice of a term in an unsigned document is an objective test?

parker v SE railway co; thompson v LM & S railway co; j spurling ltd v bradshaw

41

Smith v Eric S Bush on difference between definition of a duty and defensive term

'but for' test - would liability arise but for the term in question?

42

who highlighted the importance of the statement is vital when distinguishing between whether it is a term or a representation?

Morris LJ in Oscar Chess

43

what does s.2 UCTA cover?

negligence liability

43

What case suggests draftsmen will separate out clauses, and this seems to be respected by courts, to avoid the entire clause being struck down?

Watford Electronics Ltd v Sanderson CFL Ltd

44

What needs to be established before UCTA can be used?

basis upon which D is liable (e.g. term, incorporated, covers event in question on proper construction?)

44

how could one distinguish between Abbey National and First National Bank for UTCCR?

Distinguish on due performance and breach; pay fees for breach but overdraft fees part of package

45

olley v marlborough court ltd

hotel room - must be given before

45

what does s.6 and s.7 of the UCTA apply to?

exemption from breach of implied terms in SoG, hire purchase and supply of goods

45

who says that Canada Steamship rules would need explicit overruling, not just dicta in Bromwich?

McKendrick

45

Judgment in Hotel Services Ltd v Hilton International Hotels (UK) Ltd?

distinction between 1st (direct and outside exclusion) and 2nd (indirect and inside clause) limb of rule in Hadley v Baxendale; express words must be used as sizeable loss of profit is frequently 'direct'

46

what section of UCTA controls exemption from breach of implied terms in SoG, hire purchase and supply of goods?

s.6 and s.7

47

What did Atiyah say about the value of a signature in "Form and Substance in Contract Law"?

It 'would be greatly reduced if it could not be treated as conclusive ground of contractual liability'

48

what judge in Rainy Sky SA v Kookmin Bank suggested unambiguous language needs to be applied?

Lord Clarke

49

Howard Marine & Dredging Co Ltd v A Ogden & Sons (Excavations) Ltd on s.11 and Sch.2

Not just limited to factors in s.11 and Sch.2 UCTA

50

Name an administrative enforcement mechanism, named as a qualifying body under Reg.12(1).

OFT

51

how is s.12 UCTA narrower than UTCCR?

exclusions in s.12(1)(c) (auctions, competitive tenders and rarely supplied goods)

52

What did Bingham say in FNB about 'good faith' under Reg.5(1)?

'fair and open dealing'

53

What type of damages are given for breach of a term/warranty?

expectation damages (forward looking)

53

what type of term was at issue in the case of Curtis v Chemical Cleaning & Dyeing Co Ltd

a collateral term that exemption only applied to beads and sequins

54

Lovell and Christmas v Wall

not going beyond 'four corners' of the document to interpret it

55

On what directive is UTCCR based?

European Directive 93/13/EEC

56

How could the decision in Peninsula Business Services Ltd v Sweeney be justified?

D could not expect greater rights than the contract gave

57

What regulations govern fairness review under UTCCR?

Reg.5(1) (good faith, significant imbalance) and Reg 6.6(1) (assessment at time of conclusion)

59

A-G of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd, Hoffman

restated term for implication in fact

60

Shell (UK) Ltd v Lostock Garage Ltd

reasonableness in CL, test by Denning MR; look to case law for case implying term, or consider if reasonable in particular category to imply it

61

What case shows the danger of relaxing a clause for s.11 UCTA?

Finney Lock; unreasonable under s.11 due to general understanding that it is not to be enforced.

63

how are terms implied by custom?

Custom of marker, trade or locality

64

who is the burden of proof on under Reg.5 UTCCR?

Person claiming it was individually negotiated

65

Hollier v Rambler Motors (in regard to regularity of dealings)

'not quite one dealing a year', over phone

67

who said 'no contracts are made in a vacuum'?

Lord Wilberforce, Prenn v Simmons

68

what remains unclear after Hoffman's statement in Bromwich?

which cases have been overruled

70

what is the officious bystander test?

so obvious it goes without saying, "Oh of course"

71

Hollier v Rambler Motors (AMC) Ltd

Garage fire, 'loss howsoever arising', only non-NGL exempted

72

What does the case of Pink Floyd Music v EMI Record show about interpretation of terms?

In favour of contextual/purposive approach of Hoffman, rather than literal approach of Hardworth

73

Office of Fair Trading v Abbey National plc and Others on 'plain language' under Reg.7(1) UTCCR

'typical consumer who is reasonably well informed and reasonably observant and circumspect'

74

The Office of Fair Trading v Abbey National plc and Others on core terms

unarranged overdraft fees, part of payment for 'whole package'

75

Dick Bentley Productions Ltd v Harold Smith (Motors) Ltd

Bentley, dealer in position to know car history

76

what are the three requirements for relying on an exclusion clause?

valid incorporation, effective for C's loss and must prove reasonableness if V shows it falls within UCTA

77

Lister v Romford Ice & Cold Storage Co Ltd

employee, reasonable competence, diligence and loyalty

78

What did Phillips Products Ltd v Hayland say about exclusion?

Transferring liability 'inevitably involves the exclusion of liability as far as A is concerned'

80

what is the issue with Denning's analysis in the cases of Oscar Chess Ltd v Williams and Dick Bentley Productions Ltd v Harold Smith (Motors) Ltd?

uses language of fault but a breach of contract does not generally depend upon fault

81

what are the two possible remedies from breach of a representation?

rescission and reliance damages

82

Peninsula Business Services Ltd v Sweeney

Commission payments

83

Under what section of UCTA is the reasonableness test?

s.11

83

George Mitchel (Chesterhall) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd

Dutch winter white

85

who said that collateral terms should form part of the main contract because they have had a 'decisive influence'?

Phillimore LJ

86

what section of UCTA considers business liability?

s.1(3)

88

Investors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society (No.1)

'background may... enable the reasonable man to choose between the possible meanings' of ambiguous words, Hoffman

88

what case shows the definition of a consumer is wider than UTCCR in some ways, and what is that?

R & B Customs Brokes Co Ltd v UDT Ltd --> Four wheel drive, business can deal as a consumer if contract is incidental, but not allowed in UTCCR

89

RW Green v Cade Bros Farms

Sea potatoes (3 days, not practicable)

90

what is the scope of UCTA?

contractual terms and non-contractual notices

91

how does Reg.5(1) and 6(1) differ from s.11(5) UCTA?

Burden is not reversed

92

OFT v Ashbourne

Gym contracts - would not anticipate events rendering use of gym impractical, minimum term of 12 months designed to take advantage

93

what type of implication of a term is less stringent than in fact?

by law

95

Pink Floyd Music v EMI Record

Unbundle

96

What other section of UCTA is considered for reasonableness in some, but usually most cases?

Sch.2 (strength of bargaining positions etc.)

97

what type of damages are forward looking?

expectation damages

97

what was the test for implication in fact given by Hoffman in A-G of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd?

objective according to reasonable person and business efficacy alone is insufficient

98

what do the three cases Oscar Chess, Dick Bentley and Esso Petroleum have in common?

all show knowledge of the parties is vital

99

why is it posited that Hoffman did not mean to be revolutionary in Bromwich Building Society?

Affirming change of Wilbeforce in Prenn v Simmons on vacuums

101

what three types of terms are there?

collateral, express and implied

102

When does fairness under Reg.7(1) UTCCR extend to core terms?

When they fail the requirement of plain, intelligible language

104

What does s.2 control?

exemptions from negligence

105

In what case was there found a 'sharp distinction' with Phillips Products Ltd v Hayland through agreement to bear liability in a particular way?

Thompson v T Lohan (Plant Hire); Lohan did not exclude liability to victims, only to the hirers themselves

107

what are the three principal choices for future development in interpreting terms?

resurrect traditional, literal approach; keep law as it is; keep evolving, expanding range of materials to have regard to

107

L'Estrange v F Graucob Ltd

Cigarette vend, brown paper

108

why did Mummery LJ in Midland Bank plc v Cox McQueen say that it is of little significance that it is unclear which cases have been overruled after Hoffman in Bromwich?

precedent value of case concerned with contract interpretation generally low due to significance of individual case

109

in terms of incorporation by course of dealing and custom, what cases show the scope of regular dealings?

McCutcheon v David MacBrayne Ltd; Hollier v Rambler Motors; British Crane Hire Corporation v Ipswich Plant Hire Ltd; Motours Ltd v Euroball (West Kent) Ltd

110

McCutcheon v David MacBrayne Ltd (regularity)

Four occasions, but no signed risk note

111

Freiburger Kommunalbauten GmbH Baugesellschaft v Hofstetter

National courts determine unfairness test under UTCCR

111

Axa Sun Life Services plc v Campbell Martin Ltd on s.3(2)(b)

Alternative holiday reserved unless of a lower standard

112

Anglo Continental Holidays Ltd v Typaldos Lines (London) Ltd

change or cancel

114

what is the effect of breaching a 'mere puff'?

no legal effect

115

what section of UCTA caught the evading clause in Anglo Continental Holidays Ltd v Typaldos Lines (London) Ltd?

s.2(3)(b)

116

In what Report did the Law Commission give four recommendations for UCTA and UTCCR?

Report on Unfair Terms in Contracts, Report No.292

118

Green (RW) Ltd v Cade Bros

Three day time limit

120

what did the case of Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Mardon say about Oscar Chess?

law has moved on, so could recover damages as a term or representation

122

what did Sir Edmund-Davies say in Liverpool CC v Irwin?

'always necessity and not merely reasonableness'

124

who suggested, against Lovell and Christmas v Wall, that context is essential for any document?

M Chen-Wishart in Contract Law on summer meaning one thing to a farmer and another to a student

126

Cunliffe-Owen v Teather & Greenwood test for term implied by custom

certain, notorious, legally binding, reasonable and consistent with contract

126

who dissented strongly with Hoffman's approach in Investors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society (No.1) to context of a term?

Lord Lloyd

127

what two sections of the SoGA imply terms by law into contracts, and cannot be contracted out of for consumers and only limited for consumers?

s.12(1) on good title of seller and s.13(1) on goods corresponding to description given

129

Motours Ltd v Euroball (West Kent) Ltd

Not plain language, never discussed, 'very difficult' to read, but 14 signed over 18 months

130

Why was it important to determine if it was a term of a representation in the past?

a term used to signify jurisdiction for damages

131

what case showed that the parole evidence rule on express terms bars external evidence?

Jacobs v Batvia & General Plantations Trust Ltd

133

what type of damages are backward looking?

reliance damages

135

what rules does Morton give in Canada Steamship for exemption of negligence liability?

needs to cover NGL, wide enough to cover NGL (Continental Express) and if further than NGL then only exempt from non-NGL (Hollier v Rambler)

137

what section of UCTA gives definitions of types of exemption clause?

s.13

137

what is the definition of non-individually negotiated terms under Reg.5(2) UTCCR)

'drafted in advance' and consumer unable to negotiate therefore

139

Multi-Link Leisure Developments v North Lanarkshire Council

poor drafting

141

what is a term/warranty in a contract?

part of what has been promised

141

What does Sch.1 UCTA do?

Exempts certain contracts (e.g. insurance, transfer of interest in land etc.) are exempt from s.2-4 UCTA

142

what is one possible issue with the judgment The Office of Fair Trading v Abbey National plc and Other?

only 20% incur the charged but point is that 100% could

144

what two exceptions did courts recognise to the incorporation of a signed document in L'Estrange?

Non est factum and induced to sign due to an MR (e.g. Curtis --> Wedding dress)

145

How did Atiyah state the test in Liverpool CC v Irwin?

term ends to be 'reasonably necessary having regard to the context and the price'

146

what case outlines the officious bystander test?

Shirlaw v Southern Foundries Ltd

147

in what statute is contra proferentum now incorporated?

Reg 7(2) UTCCR

148

Who confirmed Reid's presumption against unreasonable results and in what case?

Hoffman in Investors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society (No.1)

149

Director General of Fair Trading v First National Bank plc on core terms

Continue paying interests, not defining obligations in the 'due performance of the contract' so reviewable

151

what case suggests that if drafting is considered poor, less likely to give words ordinary natural meaning?

Multi-Link Leisure Developments v North Lanarkshire Council

152

who argued it is of little significance that it is unclear which cases have been overruled after Hoffman in Bromwich?

Mummery LJ in Midland Bank plc v Cox McQueen

154

Andrew Bros (Bournemouth) Ltd v Singer and Co Ltd

Tried to exclude all warranties/guarantees/conditions from CL or statute

155

why is the definition of a consumer under s.3 UTCCR narrower than UCTA?

Requires them to be a 'natural person'

156

why are collateral terms allowed to add to a document containing all the terms, per Phillimore LJ?

promise has had a 'decisive influence' so should be included

157

in what case did Wilberforce say that no contracts are made in a vacuum?

Prenn v Simmons

158

what argument did the HoL reject of Denning's in Liverpool CC v Irwin?

that the test for terms implied by law is merely one of reasonableness

159

Hotel Services Ltd v Hilton International Hotels (UK) Ltd

Robobars

160

what did lord cross say in Liverpool CC v Irwin over implication of the landlord duty?

it satisfied in law, but not for officious bystander test (in fact), demonstrating the latter is stricter

161

what are the two limitations of standard form contracts?

exemption clauses may be included; removing 'freedom of contract' because told to take it or leave it

162

what two cases explore the meaning of a core term in UTCCR?

The Office of Fair Trading v Abbey National plc and Other; Director General of Fair Trading v First National Bank plc

163

what are the two key terms for implication of a term in fact?

business efficacy and officious bystander

165

what three things need be considered to see if an unsigned document has all its terms incorporated?

timing of notice, objective test of reasonable person that it was a contractual document and objective test of reasonable notice

167

J Spurling Ltd v Bradshaw

Denning, 'red hand', onerous clauses

169

what is the definition of a business under s.14 UCTA?

professions and activities of any government department or local/public authority

170

what was the ratio in L'Estrange v F Graucob Ltd?

if you sign a form containing an exemption clause you were generally bound

171

Mandelssonn v Normand Ltd, Phillimore LJ on collateral terms

'unjust' to allow maker to deny the promise

172

What did Finney Lock say about the powers of the courts when considering terms?

courts cannot re-write a claim; only uphold or invalidate it.

174

What did Diplock say in Photo Production Ltd v Securicor Transport Ltd about UCTA and UTCCR?

reduced the need to go 'through all kinds of gymnastic contortions to get around unfair exemption clauses'

176

Watford Electronics Ltd v Sanderson CFL Ltd

Draftsmen separating out clauses

178

what case try to distinguish between indirect and consequential loss?

Hotel Services Ltd v Hilton International Hotels (UK) Ltd

180

what case shows that whether an unsigned document is contractual is an objective test of reasonable person?

chapelton v barry DC --> deck chair

181

What are there three possible remedies for breach of a term/warranty?

expectation damages, termination for breach of a condition/innominate term and specific performance (rare)

183

what case showed courts used to rely on a literal interpretation of terms and documents and not go beyond the 'four corners'

Lovell and Christmas v Wall

184

Smith v Eric S Bush on s.11

'Impossible to draw up an exhaustive list of factors to be taken into account'

185

What are the difficulties of OFT v Ashbourne and FNB?

Said that you would underestimate use of gym at start; may underestimate use of bank account leading to interest charges? Very hard to distinguish.

186

What do s.6 and s.7 allow, unlike UTCCR?

That any party can benefit from them, although stronger protection is given to a consumer

188

in what scenarios are business excluded/limited from exempting negligence under s.2 UCTA?

death/personal injury = no qualifications; other loss/damage needs to satisfy s.11 (reasonableness)

189

what type of 'old intellectual baggage' has been discarded after UCTA (Hoffman, West Bromwich)?

contra proferentum to create ambiguity then apply it no longer needed

190

when is a term implied by law?

in certain contexts governed by law, e.g. employment, insurance, tenancy etc

191

Phillips Products Ltd v Hayland

Excavator, hirer solely responsible

192

Smith v Eric S Bush & Harris v Wyre Forest DC

Excluding duty of care for valuation work

193

how was the clause in Andrew Bros (Bournemouth) Ltd v Singer and Co Ltd interpreted narrowly?

only applied to implied terms (as used the word 'implied')

194

what rule is applied to express terms?

parole evidence rule

195

what techniques did courts use before UCTA controlled exemption clauses?

saying it was not incorporated; interpreting it against the person relying on the clause; presumptively valid limitation clauses but more restrictive interpretation of exclusion clauses

196

what section of UCTA does R & B Customs Brokes Co Ltd v UDT Ltd concern?

s.12

197

In what case did Reid give that in interpreting contracts/terms, there is a presumption against unreasonable results?

L Schuler AG v Wickman Machine Tool Sales Ltd

198

What are the three ways a court may imply a term?

By custom, by law or in fact

199

what are the three positives of the parole evidence rule?q

clarity, certainty and may help disputes

200

Scally v Southern Health and Social Services Board

Superannuation contributions

200

who said that exclusion clauses can be vital for allocating risk as well?

Judge Bowsher QC in British Fermentation Products Ltd v Compair Reavell Ltd

201

how did M C-W criticise the judgments in Abbey National and FNB?

'little scope for terms not deemed to be part of the "main subject matter" or "price or remuneration"'

202

what is the parole evidence rule?

barring external evidence to add on to the contract

203

Bank of Credit and Commerce SA v Ali

'judicial creativity bordering on judicial legislation' (Hoffman)

204

British Crane Hire Corporation v Ipswich Plant Hire Ltd (regularity)

Parties in same trade, so derived from common practice. Marshy ground

205

who said background could help 'the reasonable man to choose between the possible meanings', and in what case?

Hoffman in Investors Compensation Scheme Ltd v West Bromwich Building Society (No.1)

206

Criticism of Timeload Ltd v BT plc?

why should courts have regard to normative ideas of reasonableness in the contract?

207

what judge argued little significance unclear on cases overruled after Bromwich?

Mummery LJ

208

what section of UCTA is mirror in Sch.2 UTCCR?

Restrictive conditions and defensive/duty defining conditions

210

can you contract out of implications of term by law?

yes - sometimes (e.g. not s.12(1) nor s.13(1) SoGA)

211

what case is an example of restrictive conditions under s.13 UCTA?

Green (RW) Ltd v Cade Bros

212

chapelton v barry district council

deck chair ('mere receipt'

213

what regulation of UTCCR applies to non-individually negotiated terms?

Reg 5

214

British Fermentation Products Ltd v Compair Reavell Ltd

Centrifugal air compressor

215

what statement in particular did Hoffman make in Bromwich that has been doubted and why?

"almost all of the old intellectual baggage of 'legal' interpretation has been discarded", but some cases too well entrenched to be overruled

216

what cases showed a party trying to evade s.3 by meaning they cannot breach their duty?

Anglo Continental Holidays Ltd v Typaldos Lines (London) Ltd; Timeload Ltd v BT plc

217

what are the court doing when they imply a term by custom?

protecting reasonable expectations of contracting parties in the market/trade/locality

218

what is the business efficacy test for implying a term?

term needed for efficient business - The Moorcock (jetty)

220

Who said the value of a signature would be greatly reduced if it were not a 'conclusive ground of contractual liability'?

Atiyah

221

thornton v shoe lane parking ltd

machine (denning, onerous)

222

How does Sch.1 UCTA compare to UTCCR?

UTCCR applies to all consumer contracts, except those excluded in Reg.4(2)(a) and (b)

223

Who enforces the UTCCR?

OFT

224

Jacobs v Batvia & General Plantations Trust Ltd

Barring external evidence

225

Under what section was the exclusion clause in Smith v Eric S Bush caught?

s.13(1)(b)

226

Mahmud v Bank of Credit and Commerce

Implied term by law of 'trust and confidence' for contracts of employment

227

Implied term by law of 'trust and confidence' for contracts of employment

Mahmud v Bank of Credit and Commerce

228

What did Hoffman suggest in A-G of Belize v Belize Telecom about interpretation?

Incorporation of terms is the same as interpreting contracts

229

What test did Hoffman replace in A-G of Belize?

Officious bystander (Shirlaw) with the man on the Clapham omnibus

230

What is a philosophical positive of Hoffman in ICM v West Bromwich?

Matches linguistic philosophy - need background to understand syntax

231

What has Hoffman admitted about ICM v West Bromwich?

'Sound practical intuition' of concerns over ICM

232

What did Rogers argue to support ICM v West Bromwich?

It is 'inimical' to the resolution of commercial disputes to approach the contract with a 'finely tuned linguistic fork'

233

What is the circular reasoning of interpretation of terms and contracts?

If you look at intention of the parties, how do you know their intention wasn't the literal wording?

234

What did the court say in Rainy Sky v Kookmin IF the contract IS ambiguous?

Choose meaning 'most consistent with business common sense'

235

What did Patten LJ warn in the CoA of Rainy Sky?

Purposive approach to business common sense risks court substituting its own commercial judgment

236

What does the case of Rainy Sky show in particular about the effect of a purposive v literal approach to interpretation?

Has led to disagreement amongst courts - Patten LJ in CoA and Clarke in HoL on 'unambiguous words force application'