Who dominated the government in the FRG, 1950s-1960s?
In the FRG, the Christian Democratic Union, led by Konrad Adenauer, dominated throughout the 1950s and 1960s
What was the situation economically in the FRG in the 1950s and 1960s?
- The FRG experienced what was the an ‘economic miracle’
What were the problems in FRG?
People were worried with the growing materialistic and consumerist culture in the FRG, and that many ex-Nazis held important roles in government, and the political conservatism of the government
What challenges faced both countries?
- Rebuilding after WWII
- Coming to terms with the legacy of the Holocaust
- Finding workable new government and social systems
What government dominated the GDR, 1950s - 1960s?
The GDR was dominated by strict socialist government, controlled by the SED
How did the Germanies portray each other?
The FRG portrayed the East as a totalitarian dictatorship, where citizens were denied rights of freedom of speech, religion and travel
- The GDR portrayed the West as materialistic and Nazi-run, highlighting problems such as homelessness, drug abuse and unemployment, which it claimed didn’t exist in the GDR
Why did the GDR find the propaganda war difficult?
Many East Germans could still receive Western television and radio broadcasts, depicting a very different picture. It was illegal for East Germans to watch or listen before 1974, but was impossible to enforce
What was the German attitude to rearmament?
Both Germanys opposed rearmament after WWII
What was the governmental system of the FRG?
- West Germany split into states with alot of power and responsibilit
- President mainly symbolic figure
- Two chambers in houses of parliament
- Bundestag = elected representatives
- Bundesrat = state representatives
What was the governmental system of the GDR?
- East Germany split into districts, directly governed from East Berlin
- President mainly symbolic figure, role taken over by ‘Council of the State’, 1960
- Two chambers, Volkskammer is the ‘People’s Chamber’
- representatives supposedly elected, but voting laws ensured SED majority
- Most important GDR politician is the General Secretary of the SED
How was the Holocaust legacy handled in the FRG?
- Nazi concentration camps preserved for memorial
- Compensation payments to Jewish survivors and heavily affected countries
How was the Holocaust legacy handled in the GDR?
- Extra pension allowance given to Jewish Holocaust survivors
- Focused on Communist concentration camp prisoners and survivors, who were glorified as ‘anti-fascist freedom fighters’
How did FRG and GDR attitudes to Middle East differ?
- The FRG established full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1965
- The GDR mistrusted Israel, seeing it as an American puppet, and supported the Arab struggle against Israel
How was trade between the Germanys?
Inter-German trade was generally very strong
It did not incur tariffs or taxes as it counted as ‘domestic trade’
The GDR could be seen as part of the EEC through its links with the FRG
What did the Hallstein Doctrine assert?
The Hallstein Doctrine asserted that the FRG had the right to speak for the whole of Germany in international affairs, would not establish full relations with countries that recognised the GDR - ie. FRG is only ‘real’ Germany, doesn’t recognise GDR as country
Who promoted the Hallstein Doctrine?
Konrad Adenauer and the CDU promoted the Hallstein Doctrine, committed to reunification of Germany
What did Stalin propose in 1952?
Stalin proposed a reunited, neutral, disarmed Germany in 1952, but Western Allies did not accept the proposal as they suspected Stalin aimed to spread Communism in Western Europe. Adenauer rejected the idea
What happened in the FRG Economic Miracle, 1945-1950s?
The Economic Miracle was a period of massive and sustained growth in the FRG economy
- FRG became 3rd strongest industrial power
- 2nd in world trade
- New building of towns and cities
What did the FRG suffer during the Economic Miracle, 1945-1950s?
- Labour shortages
What caused the FRG Economic Miracle, 1945-1950s? (p10)
- Marshall Aid, 1947
- Currency Reform, 1949
- Relatively intact industrial base, especially Ruhr, with ample raw materials
- Cheap labour from South Eastern Europe and Turkey
- Demand for consumer and industrial goods - weapons and machinery - from West, especially from USA fighting Korean War
- Savings from no army
- Good labour relations (‘co-determination’, workers represented on companies boards, reduces threat of strikes, benefits for workers) - Strikes are very rare due to good labour relations
- Very hard work of German people
- Ludwig Erhard pursued sensible economic policies (‘social-market economy’, ‘laissez-faire’
- By 1950s, living standards were v good - government could provide generous welfare
Who controlled FRG foreign relations between 1949 and 1955?
The Allied High Commission controlled FRG foreign affairs between 1949 and 1955
Why was there trust between the FRG and West?
Adenauer’s policy of economic co-operation with the West created an atmosphere of trust
What did Adenauer accept in 1949?
Adenauer accepted in 1949 that the West would control the Ruhr. However, in 1951 the FRG, Belgium, France, Holland and Luxembourg created the European Coal and Steel Community, which lay the foundations for the EU. This led to Western powers handing back control of the Ruhr to East Germany.
Why did the Western powers hand back control of the Ruhr to the FRG in 1951?
In 1951, the European Coal and Steel Community was formed, which lay the foundations for the EU, causing the Western powers to hand back control of the Ruhr to East Germany
Why and when did the FRG become an independent (of Western Allies) state?
In 1954, the Allied High Commission was abolished. A year later, in 1955, the FRG became an official independent state
How long was Konrad Adenauer Chancellor of the FRG for?
Konrad Adenauer was Chancellor of the FRg from 1949 to `1963, 14 years
In 1957, Adenauer’s Party the Christian Democratic Union, the CDU, became the first party in German history to gain an overall majority in the Bundestag
Why was Adenauer able to stay in power for so long?
- The economic miracle, from 1945-1950s
- Admiration of Adenauer’s strong foreign policy and leadership
- A lack of strong opposition
What were the criticisms of Adenauer’s government?
- Too Americanised (consumerist, materialistic)
- Young people believed the Nazi past was not faced up to
- Social inequality (poorly paid foreign workers)
- The FRG government was seen as overly conservative - outlawed Communist Party after it’s support of GDR crushing of 1953 Uprising in Berlin
- ‘Spiegel Affair’, 1962, where journalists were arrested for writing against FRG armed forces, forced Adenauer to resign
Were ex-Nazis allowed to work in governmental positions?
- In 1951, the 131 Law allowed ex-Nazis to become FRG civil servants
- One man employed as a result, Hans Globke, had helped to write anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws
Why was the FRG allowed to re-arm?
In 1955, the FRG was allowed to re-arm, as the USA believed the FRG was an important line of defence against Communism
- In 1955, military service became compulsory in the FRG
What year did the FRG join NATO?
The FRG joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, NATO, in 1955.
What was NATO?
NATO, joined by the FRG in 1955, was a military alliance of the Western pwoers
How did the USSR respond to the FRG joining NATO in 1955?
The USSR responded to the FRG joining NATO in 1955 by setting up the Warsaw Pact
What happened to the FRG economy in the mid-1960s?
In the mid-1960s, the FRG experienced a mini-recession. The economic miracle had run its course
What were the effects of the mini-recession of the mid-1960s in the FRG?
- Unemployment and inflation rose
- Resentment of foreign workers increased
- Extremist far-right parties began to appear, such as the NPD
Who were the NPD?
The NPD were an extremist, far-right party called the National German Army
Who took advantage of the CDUs decreasing popularity?
The Social Democratic Party, the SPD, took advantage of Adenauer’s problems, rebranding itself and appealing to the middle classes
What did the SPD do to gain support?
- Aimed to appeal to the growing middle classes
- Supported joining of NATO
- Supported remilitarisation
Who became FRG Chancellor between 1963 and 1966?
Ludwig Erhard, the man who had overseen the economic miracle, became Chancellor of FRG between 1963-1966
What was formed in the FRG in 1966?
The ‘Grand Coalition’ of the CDU and SPD was formed in 1966
Who was Chancellor of the ‘Grand Coalition’ formed in 1966?
Ex-Nazi Karl Kiesinger
Who overshadowed Karl Kiesinger?
Ex-mayor of West Berlin and Foreign Minister, Willy Brandt
What was Willy Brandt in favour of?
Willy Brandt was in favour of improving relations between East and West Berlin
What were the student protest movements of the 1960s in the FRG against?
- Wanted FRG to face Nazi past
- Against Kiesinger
- Against FRG/ USA association
- Against War in Vietnam
When was the STASI set up in the GDR?
The STASI was set up in the GDR in 1950
What did the STASI do?
The STASI were the Ministry for State Security. It used surveillance, arrest and intimidation to maintain state control
What did the STASI use to gain information and survey people?
The STASI employed up to 150,000 informers to gain intelligence. People often joined the IM’s to gain better opportunities
Why was the GDR not truly democratic?
Voters had to pick from a list of candidates nominated by the government
- The GDRs parliament, the Volkskammer, was dominated by the SED
What did the GDR take into state control?
- Energy production
How was the GDRs industrial production by 1955?
Industrial production had doubled in the GDR by 1955
What problems were there in the GDR economically?
- Housing shortages
- Goods shortages and of inferior quality
- Small businesses resented state control
- Farmers fled to GDR after collectivsation
- Led to food shortages and rationing
What was the ‘June Uprising’ in 1953 in the GDR?
Thousands of workers protested against the unrealistically high expectations placed on them by the government
What did the June Uprising of 1953 strikers want?
The strikers demanded free elections and the resignation of the SED government
How was the June Uprising of 1953 crushed?
The Russian Army had to intervene with tanks and soldiers, killing 70 people and arresting thousands
What did the STASI do following the June Uprising of 1953?
The STASI began to compile ‘mood reports’, to help government gauge public opinion and use targeted propaganda to maintain control
When did the GDR re-militarise?
The GDR remilitarised in 1955, like the FRG
Why did the GDR remilitarise?
The GDR claimed to have to remilitarise against the threat of Western expansion
Why did GDR citizens resent remilitarisation?
- Reminder of Nazi past
- ## Resented government spending on it when living standards were so low
What pact did the GDR join in 1955?
In 1955, the GDR joined the Warsaw Pact, the USSRs answer to NATO
Why did the GDR put severe restrictions on people travelling from East to West?
The GDR put strict restriction on travel to the FRG as many people fled due to low living standards in GDR
How many people fled the GDR for the FRG between 1949 and 1961?
1.5 million people fled the GDR for the FRG between 1949 and 1961
What problems did people leaving the GDR until 1961 cause?
People leaving the GDR caused:
- labour shortages in factories, farms and the armed forces
- damaged the governments image
How did FRG treat those from GDR?
- GDR escapees were automatically granted FRG citizenship, and generous financial and housing help if they could prove the were being persecuted by the SED (FRG can afford this, economic miracle)
How did the GDR label those who fled to FRG?
The GDR labelled any citizens who fled to the FRG criminals, crime known as ‘flight from the republic’
- From 1957 onwards flight from the republic carried a three year prison sentence
How did the GDR crack down on FRG emigration from the 1950s?
- Travel visas became almost impossible to get hold of
- Two thirds of roads from East to West Berlin were sealed off
- Large number of STASI were employed in East Berlin to identify those wanting to emigrate
Why did GDR citizens emigrate to FRG?
- Attracted by consumerist culture and better standards of living
- Dislike of highly controlled society under socialist SED government
- Tired of STASI intimidation and observation
- Real sense of loss of place - people felt displaced after WWII and hoped to find lost family in FRG
Why was the Berlin Wall primarily built?
To stem the flow of emigration from the GDR to the FRG
Why did Cold War tensions worsen during the 1950s?
- Massive nuclear arms race going on between USA and USSR
- Disputes over USSRs crushing of Hungary uprising in 1956
- Communist leader Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba, on America’s doorstep
What did USSR leader Krushchev declare in 1961?
In 1961, USSR leader Krushchev declared all Berlin was GDR territory, and threatened military action to resolve the issue
How did President Kennedy respond to the Krushchev declaration in 1961?
Kennedy responded by saying that the West would not abandon West Berlin
When was it decided to build a wall, sealing off entrances to West Berlin to East Berlin?
In 1961, Ulbricht met with other USSR and Eastern bloc leaders, including Krushchev, and was given go ahead to seal off routes between West and East Berlin
What were the positive impacts of the wall for the GDR politically?
- Stemmed emigration
- Gave government chance to continue to try to reform GDR economy and society
- Much easier to repress people
What were the positive impacts of the Wall for the GDR economically?
- The GDR gained hard currency by selling travel visas to the West to visit the East Berlin
- After the Wall was constructed, Ulbricht implemented the ‘New Economic System’, which led to higher wages, more agricultural production and more consumer goods
- Many GDR citizens came to terms with the fact they couldn’t go West, prompting the creation of a better society
What did the ‘New Economic System’ implemented by Ulbricht after the construction of the Wall achieve?
The New Economic System achieved higher wages, more consumer goods and more agricultural production
What were the negative impacts of the Wall?
- Families were split up, causing massive resentment
- The FRG and West could use it as anti-Communist propaganda, demonstrating how Communism had to wall in its citizens
- GDR citizens felt as though the government didn’t trust them
- Defence of the Wall was very costly
How many years was the Berlin Wall up for?
The Berlin Wall was up for 28 years, 1961 to 1989
Were there many escape attempts?
There were many escape attempts across the Berlin Wall, including by hot air balloon, air-glider, mini submarines - 191 people were killed trying to cross the border
How many people were killed trying to cross the border?
- 191 people were killed trying to cross the border
Could East Germans visit the West?
East Germans could apply to visit the West, but permission being granted was a rarity. Pensioner were often aloud, as they were a ‘burden on society’
What did the 1971 Four Power Agreement achieve?
The 1971 Four Power Agreement eased some travel restrictions on West Berliners going East
What was Checkpoint Charlie?
Checkpoint Charlie was a point at which West Germans could go East, and Allied forces on diplomatic missions could go East