Flashcards in Contrasting Economic and Political Developments in the FRG and GDR, 1950 to 1970, Chapter 2 Deck (81)
Who dominated the government in the FRG, 1950s-1960s?
In the FRG, the Christian Democratic Union, led by Konrad Adenauer, dominated throughout the 1950s and 1960s
What was the situation economically in the FRG in the 1950s and 1960s?
- The FRG experienced what was the an 'economic miracle'
What were the problems in FRG?
People were worried with the growing materialistic and consumerist culture in the FRG, and that many ex-Nazis held important roles in government, and the political conservatism of the government
What challenges faced both countries?
- Rebuilding after WWII
- Coming to terms with the legacy of the Holocaust
- Finding workable new government and social systems
What government dominated the GDR, 1950s - 1960s?
The GDR was dominated by strict socialist government, controlled by the SED
How did the Germanies portray each other?
The FRG portrayed the East as a totalitarian dictatorship, where citizens were denied rights of freedom of speech, religion and travel
- The GDR portrayed the West as materialistic and Nazi-run, highlighting problems such as homelessness, drug abuse and unemployment, which it claimed didn't exist in the GDR
Why did the GDR find the propaganda war difficult?
Many East Germans could still receive Western television and radio broadcasts, depicting a very different picture. It was illegal for East Germans to watch or listen before 1974, but was impossible to enforce
What was the German attitude to rearmament?
Both Germanys opposed rearmament after WWII
What was the governmental system of the FRG?
- West Germany split into states with alot of power and responsibilit
- President mainly symbolic figure
- Two chambers in houses of parliament
- Bundestag = elected representatives
- Bundesrat = state representatives
What was the governmental system of the GDR?
- East Germany split into districts, directly governed from East Berlin
- President mainly symbolic figure, role taken over by 'Council of the State', 1960
- Two chambers, Volkskammer is the 'People's Chamber'
- representatives supposedly elected, but voting laws ensured SED majority
- Most important GDR politician is the General Secretary of the SED
How was the Holocaust legacy handled in the FRG?
- Nazi concentration camps preserved for memorial
- Compensation payments to Jewish survivors and heavily affected countries
How was the Holocaust legacy handled in the GDR?
- Extra pension allowance given to Jewish Holocaust survivors
- Focused on Communist concentration camp prisoners and survivors, who were glorified as 'anti-fascist freedom fighters'
How did FRG and GDR attitudes to Middle East differ?
- The FRG established full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1965
- The GDR mistrusted Israel, seeing it as an American puppet, and supported the Arab struggle against Israel
How was trade between the Germanys?
Inter-German trade was generally very strong
It did not incur tariffs or taxes as it counted as 'domestic trade'
The GDR could be seen as part of the EEC through its links with the FRG
What did the Hallstein Doctrine assert?
The Hallstein Doctrine asserted that the FRG had the right to speak for the whole of Germany in international affairs, would not establish full relations with countries that recognised the GDR - ie. FRG is only 'real' Germany, doesn't recognise GDR as country
Who promoted the Hallstein Doctrine?
Konrad Adenauer and the CDU promoted the Hallstein Doctrine, committed to reunification of Germany
What did Stalin propose in 1952?
Stalin proposed a reunited, neutral, disarmed Germany in 1952, but Western Allies did not accept the proposal as they suspected Stalin aimed to spread Communism in Western Europe. Adenauer rejected the idea
What happened in the FRG Economic Miracle, 1945-1950s?
The Economic Miracle was a period of massive and sustained growth in the FRG economy
- FRG became 3rd strongest industrial power
- 2nd in world trade
- New building of towns and cities
What did the FRG suffer during the Economic Miracle, 1945-1950s?
- Labour shortages
What caused the FRG Economic Miracle, 1945-1950s? (p10)
- Marshall Aid, 1947
- Currency Reform, 1949
- Relatively intact industrial base, especially Ruhr, with ample raw materials
- Cheap labour from South Eastern Europe and Turkey
- Demand for consumer and industrial goods - weapons and machinery - from West, especially from USA fighting Korean War
- Savings from no army
- Good labour relations ('co-determination', workers represented on companies boards, reduces threat of strikes, benefits for workers) - Strikes are very rare due to good labour relations
- Very hard work of German people
- Ludwig Erhard pursued sensible economic policies ('social-market economy', 'laissez-faire'
- By 1950s, living standards were v good - government could provide generous welfare
Who controlled FRG foreign relations between 1949 and 1955?
The Allied High Commission controlled FRG foreign affairs between 1949 and 1955
Why was there trust between the FRG and West?
Adenauer's policy of economic co-operation with the West created an atmosphere of trust
What did Adenauer accept in 1949?
Adenauer accepted in 1949 that the West would control the Ruhr. However, in 1951 the FRG, Belgium, France, Holland and Luxembourg created the European Coal and Steel Community, which lay the foundations for the EU. This led to Western powers handing back control of the Ruhr to East Germany.
Why did the Western powers hand back control of the Ruhr to the FRG in 1951?
In 1951, the European Coal and Steel Community was formed, which lay the foundations for the EU, causing the Western powers to hand back control of the Ruhr to East Germany
Why and when did the FRG become an independent (of Western Allies) state?
In 1954, the Allied High Commission was abolished. A year later, in 1955, the FRG became an official independent state
How long was Konrad Adenauer Chancellor of the FRG for?
Konrad Adenauer was Chancellor of the FRg from 1949 to `1963, 14 years
In 1957, Adenauer's Party the Christian Democratic Union, the CDU, became the first party in German history to gain an overall majority in the Bundestag
Why was Adenauer able to stay in power for so long?
- The economic miracle, from 1945-1950s
- Admiration of Adenauer's strong foreign policy and leadership
- A lack of strong opposition
What were the criticisms of Adenauer's government?
- Too Americanised (consumerist, materialistic)
- Young people believed the Nazi past was not faced up to
- Social inequality (poorly paid foreign workers)
- The FRG government was seen as overly conservative - outlawed Communist Party after it's support of GDR crushing of 1953 Uprising in Berlin
- 'Spiegel Affair', 1962, where journalists were arrested for writing against FRG armed forces, forced Adenauer to resign
Were ex-Nazis allowed to work in governmental positions?
- In 1951, the 131 Law allowed ex-Nazis to become FRG civil servants
- One man employed as a result, Hans Globke, had helped to write anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws