How many Chancellors did the FRG have between 1969 and 1989?
The FRG had 3 Chancellors between 1969 and 1989: Willy Brandt (1969-1974) Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982) Helmut Kohl (1982-1990)
What is Willy Brandt (1969-1974) best remembered for?
Willy Brandt is best remembered for creating the policy of Ostpolitik
What was Ostpolitik?
Ostpolitik was the policy of creating better relations between the FRG and GDR
What was a criticism of Ostpolitik?
Many feared Ostpolitik would lead to the permanent division of Germany
What reforms did Willy Brandt introduce in the GDR?
- Greater pension and sickness benefits
- More government spending on education
- Voting age was lowered from 21 to 18
- Greater gender equality
- Relaxed laws against homosexuality
- Despite Ostpolitik, increased benefits for those who had fled the GDR
What economic challenges did Willy Brandt (1969-1974) face?
- The end of the ‘economic miracle’
- Rising unemployment
- The 1973 Oil Crisis (rising unemployment, government costs and lower government income)
What was the 1973 Oil Crisis and what were it’s effects?
In 1973, OPEC trebled the price of oil, partly in response to the USA arming Iraeli forces in the Yom Kippur War. This impacted hard on West Germany, but now as hard as in other countries, as West Germany’s economy was still relatively strong. However, it increased unemployment and government costs, whilst lowering government income
What social problems did Willy Brandt (1969-74) have to deal with?
Brandt had to deal with growing terrorism and extremism from within the GDR
- Left-wing groups were against USAs involvement in Vietnam, and FRGs support of the USA
- The left-wing groups also supported Arab troops, whereas USA and FRG supported Israel
- Brandt took a firm line against terrorism
Why was Willy Brandt (1969-74) forced to resign in 1974?
Willy Brandt was forced to resign in 1974 after it emerged that one of his closest advisors, Gunther Guillaume, was passing state secrets to the East German government
What was going on around the world in the 1960s, and peaked in 1968? (students….)
Student protest movements were going on around the world in the 1960s, peaking in 1968
What did the student groups in West Germany stand for?
The student groups in West Germany:
- Opposed ex-Nazis in the West German government
- Opposed America’s presence in Vietnam
- Supported the Palestinian Arabs fighting against Israel
Who were the most well known and violent group in West Germany?
The most well known and violent group in West Germany were the Baader-Meinhof Gang, or the Red Army Faction
What did the Red Army Faction do between 1968 and 1986?
The Red Army Faction committed a number of terrorist acts against the West German government and American interests in West Germany
How long did the Gang survive for?
Although Baader and Meinhof died in suspicious circumstances in 1977, the Gang existed until 1998
What was one of the Baader-Meinhof/ Red Army Faction’s best known actions?
The Baader Meinhof group executed Hans Schleyer, an ex-SS officer, who was the head of the German Association of Employers
Who was it later established had supported the Baader Meinhof Gang/RAF?
It was established that the East German Stasi had provided support for the Baader Meinhof Gang/ RAF
Who succeeded Willy Brandt in 1974?
Helmut Schmidt succeeded Willy Brandt in 1974
Who was Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982)?
Helmut Scmidt (1974-82) had been Willy Brandt’s Minister of Economics and Finance between 1972 and 1974
What party was Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982) from?
Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982) was from the Social Democratic Party
How was Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982) seen?
Helmut Schmidt (72-84) was seen as more decisive and uncompromising than Brandt
What did Helmut Schmidt (72-82) continue?
Helmut Schmidt (1974-1982) continued the policy of Ostpolitik
Where did Helmut Schmidt visit in 1981?
Schmidt made an official visit to East Germany in 1981
What energy problems did Schmidt (72-82) have to deal with?
Schmidt (74-82) had to deal with the fall out of the 1970s energy crisis
What energy production did Schmidt promote?
Schmidt promoted nuclear energy, a policy criticised by many from his own party (it was v expensive)
How did Schmidt deal with terrorism?
Schmidt dealt with terrorism very harshly - in 1977, when ex-SS officer Hans Schleyer was kidnapped, the RAF demanded their prisoners release from prison - Schmidt would not negotiate
Another example of Schmidt being tough on terrorism?
When 4 Palestinian Arabs with links to the RAF hijacked a plane headed for Frankfurt in 1977 - Schmidt sent FRG Special Forces, who killed 3 of the 4 hijackers - no hostages were harmed, triumph for Schmidt
How was Schmidt’s harsh line on terrorism recieved in the FRG?
Many people applauded Schmidt’s harsh line on terrorism
When was Helmut Kohl Chancellor of the FRG?
Helmut Kohl was Chancellor of the FRG from 1982 to 1989, and subsequently leader of the united Germany
What did Helmut Kohl (1982-1989) go down in history as? (last…)
Helmut Kohl (82-89) went down in history as the last Chancellor of the FRG
Why did Kohl (82-89) replace Schmidt (74-82)?
Schmidt was losing popularity, and the Social Democratic Party was facing opposition from environmental groups, including the growing Green Party of Germany
What party was Helmut Kohl (82-89) from?
Helmut Kohl (82-89) was from the Christian Democratic Union, the CDU
What did Helmut Kohl (82-89) criticise?
Helmut Kohl (82-89) criticised the ‘Two-Thirds’ Society of the FRG, in which 2 million working age people were long term unemployed (including former ‘guest workers’) whilst the other ‘Two-Thirds’ had a relatively good standard of living
What did Kohl (82-89) do economically?
Kohl (82-89) cut government spending in many areas, but kept welfare spending high
What was Kohl helped by economically?
Kohl (82-89) was helped economically by the fall in oil prices in the 1980s - this helped the economy recover, which Kohl could take some credit for
What policy, like Brandt and Schmidt, did Kohl continue?
Kohl continued the policy of Ostpolitik
Who visited West Germany in 1987?
East Germany leader Erich Honecker visited West Germany in 1987
Who else did Kohl (82-89) foster better relations with?
- The USSR
- Worked to strengthen the EU
Why was Kohl’s judgement questioned on occasion? (ceremony…)
Kohl arranged a WWII memorial ceremony in a cemetery where SS officers were buried
Which parties increasingly challenged Kohl?
- The Green Party (over placement of nuclear weapons in Germany)
- The Republikaner Party (right-wing extremist party)
Why did it look like Kohl might have to resign in early 1989?
Talk of corruption in Kohl’s government suggested he might have had to resign
Why did Kohl not have to resign in 1989?
The fall of the Berlin Wall and collapse of the GDR boosted his popularity in 1989
What did Kohl become until 1998?
Kohl became Chancellor of a united Germany until 1998
How was the West German economy 1969-89?
20 years after WWII, West Germany had developed a very powerful economy
Was West Germany a strong, stable country, 1969-1989?
Despite threats from extremists and terrorists and economic threats, West Germany remained a strong, stable country 1969-1989
How were relations with USSR and GDR, 1960-89?
Relations with USSR and GDR were improving, thanks to the pursuit of the policy of Ostpolitik
How were relations with USA and Western Europe, 1969-89?
Relations were strong and stable between USA and Western Europe between 1969 and 89, which was extremely important
Was the FRG the stronger of the two Germanies?
The FRG was the stronger of the two Germanies, and would shape the reunification process between 1989 and 1990