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Flashcards in Control Design, V&V, Fuzzy Logic Deck (37)
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In terms of a control system what is a 'system'

Combination of components working together to perform a specific objective.


What is meant by a dynamic system

A System who's behaviour changes overtime, often i response to stimulation.


What does it mean to control a system

To regulate, direct or command the system


What is a control system

A series of components acting together to regulate or command another system.


What are some types of inpiut

Output from sensors
Se Points
Actuator Values
Desired Values


What is the output of a system

The actual response obtained from control system after the input has been processed, the output can be analogue or digital.


What is the difference between open and closed loop control

Closed loop control considers the output of the system through feedback


What is meant by feedback

The connection of multiple dynamic systems in such a way that they influence each other.


What is meant by controllability

Related to the possibility of forcing the system into a particular state by using an appropriate control signal, If a sate is not controllable then no signal will ever be able to control the state


What is meant to by observability

Related to the possibility of observing, through output measurements, the state of a system. If a state is not observable the controller will never be able to determine the behaviour of an unobservable state and hence cannot use it to control the system.


What is meant by stabilisable

A system is said to be stabilisable if the uncontrollable modes are stable


What is meant by analysis

The investigation of the properties of existing system, it is the best starting point but a representation of the system must exist.


What is meant by design

The choice and/ or the arrangement of a system components such that it can perform a specific task.


What are the steps in the control design process

Establish goals
Identifying Variables to control
System Configuration
Model creation
Controller design
Optimise and analyse


What role do sensors play in control systems

Sensors measure factors such as outputs from actuators or the system.


What are actuators in the context of a control system

These are what we can and should influence,


What is meant by a mathematical model

A series of equations or other that describes the system as closely as possible, with a good model control systems can be tested requiring no or limited access to hardware


What is meant by verification

The process of ensuring that the simulated model is an accurate representation of the physical equations that represent the dynamics of the system being modelled . Show that the simulation environment is accurate


What are the 3 steps of verification



In terms of verification what is meant by inspection

A check of each stage of the model to ensure that the system is represented correctly in each line. Each line should reflect something in the real equation. This can catch basic errors.


In terms of verification what is meant by demonstration

Model should be written so you can test elements of it as you go, for this we should input known stimulus that generate known outputs, this is done for individual elements rather than the whole system


In terms of verification what is meant by Test

A series of suitable test scenarios that you know what the output should be. These tests should be clear and have no ambiguity in the output. The tests should prove that the control system meets the requirements


What is meant by validation

The process of ensuring the simulated output response from the model is an accurate representation of output response from actual system being modelled and simulated


What needs to be decided before starting validation

Acceptable Tolerances (Response and transients)
Acceptable tracking error
Are certain outputs more important than others


What are the 2 validation methods

Analogue matching and least mean squares


Describe what is meant by Analogue matching

This is the simplest method of validation and is a comparison of the actual and simulated response. Simply a visual comparison so requires experience and expertise to be done effectively.


What is meant by the method of least mean squares

This is a quantitive measure of the accuracy of the model and is calculated using the sum of errors and provides an indication of the error over a complete test
The model parameters are then adjusted to allow the cost function to adjust.


What is meant by an intelligent controller

An intelligent controller is one that seems to make decisions based on desired output and current input to the system, it may also make decisions based on additional information


What does a fuzzy logic system aim to achieve

Attempts to mimic the way that people think in an approximate way rather than a precise way


What components would you expect to find in a fuzzy logic system

Interference Engine


What are the rules of a fuzzy logic system

Rules are gained from verification and validation and established through tests, The rules consist of if statements


What is the role of the fuzzifier

It maps the crisp inputs into input fuzzy sets


What is the role of the interference engine

Maps input sets into output fuzzy sets


What are fuzzy sets defined by

Membership functions


What are the the 3 types of defuzzification

Maximum Defuzzification
Mean Maxima Defuzzification
Centroid Defuzzification


What are the benefits of Maximum Defuzzification

Easy to use and calculate


What are the 3 types of maximum defuzzification

Highest of Maxima
Mean of Maxima
Smallest of maxima