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Flashcards in Control of Breathing and Acid Base Deck (44)
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1

Ventilation Rate is also termed

Control of Breathing

2

What parts of the body controls the ventilation rate/output?

Hindbrain (Medulla oblongata and the Pons)

3

The Higher brain centers in the brain controls....

Speech, Emotions, Voluntary, Breathing, Motor Breathing

4

Reflex using stretch receptors that happens when we reach a certain point where this is negative feedback that inhibits further stretch. Reflex occurs in the lungs.

Hering-Breuer Reflex

5

Where are proprioreceptors located?

Muscles and Joints

6

What are proprioreceptors?

A sensory receptor, found chiefly in muscles, tendons, joints, and the inner ear, that detects the motion or position of the body or a limb by responding to stimuli arising within the organism.

7

What stimuli receptors can cause a response for ventilation rate?

Pain
Touch
Temperature

8

Where are medullary chemoreceptors located?

Medulla Oblongata

9

These response directly to decreased pH, and indirectly by increased CO2 levels, and will cause what to occur?

Medullary Chemoreceptors; Increased Ventilation!

10

These are peripherally controlled that directly respond to hypoxia and indirectly to decreased pH and increased CO2 to increase ventilation.

Carotid and Aortic Body Chemoreceptors

11

The Aortic Body Chemoreceptors activate the _______ Nerve.

Vagus Nerve

12

The Carotid Body Chemoreceptors activate the _________ Nerve.

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

13

What is the major response that allows for peripheral control of breathing?

Hypoxia (Decrease in PaO2)

14

What are the minor responses by the chemosensors?

1. Increased PaCO2
2. Decreased pH

15

After crossing the BBB, CO2 + H2O ______ ___ + ______

H2CO3
H+ and HCO3-

16

Which is the important molecule in respiration that can cross the BBB?

CO2

17

Which important molecules in respiration cannot cross the BBB?

Serum H+
HCO3-

18

When CO2 interacts with water to create H+, what does it do?

Activate the H+ sensitive chemo receptors to activate the medullary respiration center to increase pulmonary ventilation to remove CO2 from the body.

19

CSF response to a change in blood pH would be?

Slow

20

CSF CO2 and H+ can do the same thing as?

CO2 crossing the BBB from the Capillaries

21

H+ donor in aqueous solution

Acid

22

OH- (or H+ acceptor) in aqueous solution

Base

23

When the concentration of H+ and OH- are equal, the pH would be

7.0

24

Normal Plasma pH is roughly

7.40

25

Normal intracellular pH around

6.8 (but depends on type of cell)

26

Concentration of _____ is tightly regulated

H+

27

A solution containing substances which have the ability to minimize changes in pH when an acid or base is added to it.

Buffer

28

Henderson Hasselbach Equation

[H+] = 24 * ( PCO2/[HCO3-])

EXTRACELLULAR H+ concentration and pH determined from this.

29

Two sources of Acid

1. Respiratory Acid (CO2)
2. Metabolic "fixed" acids from metabolism primarily protein (giving sulfate and phosphate), lactate, ketones, etc.

30

How is acid excreted from the Body?

1. Lungs (CO2)
2. Kidneys (modulate reabsorption of HCO3- and/or excretion of H+ as "fixed acids"