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Flashcards in Gas Exchange and Blood Gas Transport Deck (69)
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1

Name the three Gas Laws

1. Dalton's Law
2. Henry's Law
3. Fick's Law

2

Which law states that in a mixture of gases, each gas will behave as if it were on its own?

Dalton's Law

3

Which law states that there is a partial pressure caused by each gas that is INDEPENDENT of the other partial pressures for different gases?

Dalton's Law

4

Abiding by Dalton's law means, the sum of the _____________ of all the gases in a mixture will equal the ____________.

Partial Pressures; Total Pressure

5

The Normal Alveolar Gas Mixture Pressure is ... (in mmHg)

760 (As a result of combining the Partial Pressures of O2 (100 mmHg), Co2 (40 mmHg), H2O (47 mm Hg), and N2 (573 mmHg)).

6

When a gas is in contact with the surface of a liquid, the amount of gas that will go into the solution is ____________ to the partial pressure of that gas. What Gas Law provides this answer?

Proportional; Henry's Law

7

This law states that the rate of transfer of a gas through a sheet of tissue is proportional to the tissue area and the difference in gas partial pressure between the 2 sides and inversely proportional to the tissue thickness.

Fick's Law

8

Three principles of Fick's Law

Net Diffusion Rate of a Gas across a membrane is:
1. Proportional to the difference in partial pressure between the pre- and post- tissue barrier.
2. Proportional to the surface area of the membrane.
3. Inversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane

9

What does P A and P a mean? (In reference to Gas Exchange in the lungs)?

P A = Partial Pressure of Alveoli
P a = Partial Pressure of Arteries

10

Draw the basic overview of the Gas Exchange in the Lung, WITH PO2 and PCO2 values!

Dried Inspired Air: PO2 = 160; PCO2 = 0
Humidified Bronchial Air: PO2 = 150; PCO2 = 0
Alveolar Air: PO2 = 100; PCO2 = 40
Mixed Venous Blood (aka Pulmonary Artery): PO2 = 40; PCO2 = 46
Systemic Arterial Blood (aka Pulmonary Vein): PO2 = 100; PCO2 = 40

11

What is the equation for the Alveolar Minute Volume Rate?

V(alveolar) = V(tidal) - V(deadspace)

*** Be able to manipulate this equation!

12

The total volume of gas entering the lungs per minute?

Tidal Volume

13

The volume of gas per unit time that reaches the alveoli?

Alveolar Volume

14

The volume of gas per unit time that does not reach these respiratory portions (alveoli), but does stay in the trachea/bronchi.

Dead Space Volume

15

What determines the partial pressure of Alveolar CO2 and arterial CO2?

Alveolar Ventilation Rate

16

The rate of CO2 production by the body should be _________ to the rate of the CO2 removed by the lungs at equilibrium?

Equal

17

The rate of alveolar ventilation is the ______ determinant of the rate of the total body CO2 excretion by the lungs.

SOLE

18

If you increase alveolar ventilation, then the PACO2 or the PaCO2 would __________.

Decrease

19

If you ________ alveolar ventilation, then the PACO2 or the PaCO2 would increase.

Decrease

20

Cessation of Breathing

Apnea

21

The rate at which gas enters or leaves the lung.

Ventilation

22

Shallow or slow breathing rate can give you a decreased minute ventilation rate of Alveoli (VA); However, there is NO change in PaCO2.

Hypopnea

23

What type of Ventilation can cause brainstem damage?

Hypopnea

24

Increased deep breathing rate giving an increased minute ventilation rate of Alveoli (VA); However, there is NO change in PaCO2.

Hyperpnea

25

What type of ventilation occurs with normal exercise or with a fever?

Hyperpnea

26

Increased breathing rate giving an increased minute ventilation rate of Alveoli (VA); this INCLUDES hypocapnea and Respiratory Alkalosis

Hyperventilation

27

"Loss of CO2 from blood."

Hyperventilation

28

Hypocapnea

Decreased PaCO2

29

Which is more important for the body?

A. Depth of breathing?
B. Breaths per minute?

A. Depth of breathing!

More important because the gas inhaled needs to get into the alveoli for O2 transport in the body. If you have increased breaths per minute, you won't necessarily be giving enough O2 for the body.

30

What is the Alveolar Gas Equation?

PAO2 = [FiO2 (760-47)] - (PaCO@ / 0.8)

PAO2 = Alveolar Partial Pressure of O2
FiO2 = Fraction of inspired air = % O2 inspired/100
Patm = Atmospheric Pressure = 760 mm Hg
PH2O = Pressure of Water = 47 mm Hg @ 100% humidity
PaCO2 = Arterial CO2 partial pressure
Respiratory Quotient = 0.8