What is Clenil?
Inhaled corticosteroid brand name
What is Serevent?
What is Spiriva?
What is Seretide?
What is Type 1 Respiratory Failure and what PaO2 indicates T1RF?
Type I respiratory failure is also known as hypoxaemic failure, and is defined by a PaO2 of less than 8kPa. It indicates a serious underlying pathology with the lungs such as infection, oedema or a shunt.
What is Type 2 Respiratory Failure and what PaCO2 indicates T2RF?
Type II respiratory failure is also known as ventilatory failure, results when PaCO2 is more than 7. Reduced ventilatory effort can be a result of gas trapping, such as in COPD and severe asthma, due to chest wall deformities, muscle weakness or central causes of respiratory depression.
Name 7 clinical features of hypercapnia.
What ECG sign indicates cor pulmonale (right atrial enlargement)?
Peaked p-waves and right axis deviation
What are the top five most common infective causes of COPD exacerbation? List them from most to least common.
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Moraxella catarrhalis
- Haemophilius influenzae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
You are undertaking a medication review on one of your patients in a GP surgery. You note that the latest spirometry shows an FEV1 of 59%. The patient is already taking salbutamol prn. What other medications should be considered at this point?
Salmeterol inhaler or tiotropium inhaler
You are asked to review an ABG on a patient in the Emergency department who has been admitted with shortness of breath and is known to have COPD. You are told that they have a GCS of 15. The ABG shows:
FiO2 35% oxygen via venturi mask SaO2 98% pH 7.31 pCO2 7.8 kPa pO2 13.6 kPa HCO3 22.1 kPa BE -4.5
What does the ABG show? And what would be the best next step in management?
Uncompensated type II respiratory failure.
Reduce the amount of inspired oxygen.
What is the mechanism of action of salbutamol?
What is the mechanism of action of ipratropium?
Antimuscarinic (anticholinergic) agent
What is the mechanism of action of theophylline?
What is the mechanism of action of prednisolone?
Changes nuclear transcription of cells to reduce inflammation
What is the mechanism of action of magnesium?
Calcium channel blocker
When is long term home oxygen therapy (LTOT) indicated in patients with COPD? (select all that apply)
PaO2 < 7.3kPa on air
You are reviewing some spirometry results for one of your COPD patients. It shows an FEV1 of 39%. What is the severity of their COPD according to the GOLD (Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease) classification?
Why might patients with COPD get headaches?
Due to CO2 retention
What does Grade 1 mean on the MRC Dyspnoea Scale?
Breathless during strenuous exercise only
What does Grade 2 mean on the MRC Dyspnoea Scale?
Breathless when hurrying or walking up a slight incline
What does Grade 3 mean on the MRC Dyspnoea Scale?
Walks slower than people of the same age due to dyspnoea, or needs to pause for breath when walking at own pace