Flashcards in COPD Deck (47):
What does COPD stand for?
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
T or F: management of COPD and asthma are pretty much the same
What is the respiratory system?
gas exchange system (lungs) + pump (to ventilate lungs)
What is the pump?
chest wall, respiratory muscles (diaphragm), brain areas/neuronal connections that control breathing muscles
What is resting breathing rate of a normal healthy human?
12-15 times/ minute
About how much air is inspired/expired per breath?
What is the chest shaped like in most COPD patients?
*bc it is full with air that cannot get out
In COPD patients - do they have more or less alveoli than normal
way less plus they are swollen, enlarged and/or not working properly
What are alveoli involved in?
Describe some symptoms associated with COPD
-increase in mucous production
-dyspnea (causes impaired exercise tolerance and contributes to anxiety and depression)
Is COPD preventable?
Is COPD treatable?
No - it is simply manageable
T or F: COPD only affects your lungs
False - because exercise is harder it affects skin, cardiovascular, liver, kidneys, all in a negative way.
What are the two types of COPD?
1. chronic bronchitis
What is chronic bronchitis?
pretty much - lots of mucous being produced, which leads to coughing and people spitting more
*cig smoking most common cause
T or F: after we hit emphysema we can still reverse this disease
*Before we hit emphysema stage we can partially reverse this disease. After we hit emphysema stage there is no reversing
What is emphysema?
**only a description of lung changes
-It is an abnormal enlargement to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of their walls.
-Alveoli become larger and decrease in number which reduces the amount of oxygen transferred by the lungs to the blood stream.
List 4 points about chronic bronchitis
-main issue for pts with COPD
-chronic inflammation of airways
-nagging, persistent cough (smoker's cough)
-lots of mucus
List 3 points about emphysema
-damage to alveoli and lung tissue
-air is trapped in "dead space" at terminals
Level 1 of COPD = ?
Level 2 of COPD = ?
COPD is canada's ___ leading cause of death
When testing a patient's lung health, what are important questions to ask?
-do you cough regularly?
-do you cough phlegm?
-do simple things cause shortness of breath?
-do you wheeze when you exert yourself or at night?
-do you get frequent colds that persist longer than normal?
So smoking is #1 cause of COPD, but when it is genetic, what is the cause of COPD?
-alpha 1 anti-trypsin (AAT) deficiency
-AAT's primary role is to protect lung cells specifically
-if this is deficient, cells are not protected and tissue is destroyed
What is the disease hallmark of COPD?
accelerated decline in lung function
In one sentence: What is the difference between asthma and COPD?
In asthma there is inflammation resulting in narrowing of the airways with excess mucous, while in COPD we have same inflammatory events along with structural damage to the parenchyma (functional parts of the lung)
How does cigarette smoke contribute to COPD?
It increases oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide which:
-contribute to tissue damage
-increase protease activity!
What worsens COPD?
What makes COPD a little bit better?
-antioxidants (vit D and E)
-other repair mechanisms
What are the 5 major physiologic outcomes of COPD?
** ON EXAM KIDS
1. mucus hyper-secretion
2. airflow limitation & hyperinflation (barrel lung)
3. gas exchange abnormalities
4. pulmonary hypertension
5. muscle wasting
Explain gas exchange abnormalities.
*Bronchitis and emphysema cause altered gas exchange*
-hypoxemia (low blood oxygen)
-hypercapnia (high blood CO2)
Explain pulmonary hypertension
-increased pressure in the pulmonary
-secondary to gas-exchange abnormalities
-can result in right ventricular hypertrophy and ultimate RIGHT-SIDED HEART FAILURE
Explain muscle wasting
-also systemic inflammatory processes
-leads to skeletal muscle wasting
-contributes to decreased exercise capacity which reduces overall health status and prognosis
What is a COPD exacerbation?
A sustained worsening of dyspnea, cough or sputum, production leading to an increase in the use of maintenance medications and/or supplementation with additional medication
*average patient = 2 exacerbations/year
__ % exacerbations caused by infection
What are other triggers that can cause exacerbations?
congestive heart failure, exposure to allergens/irritants, pulmonary embolism
Will a steroid inhaler help with COPD?
Because of emphysema
Describe the physical exam for COPD?
-cyanosis of mucosal membranes
-increased resting respiratory rate
-pursed lips during expiration
-use of accessory respiratory muscles
What treatment plan do you give to a COPD patient?
-pulmonary rehabilitation (exercise training, breathing exercises, shortness of breath strategies)
-inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)
-ICS and long-acting bronchodilator (LABA) combination therapy
Give examples of bronchodilators
-theophylline (not often used)
What do inhaled corticosteroids do?
decrease inflammation in airways
*not as effective in COPD as in asthma
Double therapy would be ??
ICS and beta agonists
Triple therapy would be ??
-long acting beta agonist bronchodilator
-long acting anti-cholinergic bronchodilator
Why is the flu vaccine important for these patients?
Because these people get infections that last longer and are harder to clear due to their breathing problems, it is important to simply avoid the flu by getting the flu shot.
Describe the 4 step therapeutic plan for managing acute exacerbation of COPD
1. intensify bronchodilator therapy
2. oral steroids to surpress inflammation
3. antibiotics if purulent, coloured sputum
4. oxygen therapy
What are some goals of COPD management?
-prevent disease progression
-improve exercise tolerance and overall health status