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Flashcards in Depression Deck (21):


major depressive disorder


How common is MDD?

lifetime prevalence of approx 16% (almost 1 in 6)


How is MDD diagnosed?

when a person has 5 or more of the MDD symptoms consistently through a 2 week period


What are MDD symptoms?

-depressed most of the day
-anhedonia (lack of pleasure)
-weight loss
-sleep disturbance
-psychomotor changes
-feelings of worthlessness or guilt
-inability to concentrate or make decisions
-thought of death or SI (suicidal ideation)


How can neuropathology and/or neuroimaging help to diagnose MDD?

-a small reduction in hippocampal size
-increased activation of the amygdala by negative stimuli
-reduced activation of the nucleus accumbent by rewarding stimuli
-deep brain stimulation (DBS) of either the nucleus accumbent or subgenus area 25 elevates mood in normal and depressed individuals


What are some medical causes of depression?

-low thyroid
-chronic pain
-malignancy (cancer)


What are some substance-related causes of depression?

-ethanol ?? wtf
-THC ?


What else can cause depression?



Describe the screening process for depression

validated questionnaires or scales to screen for and measure depression/severity

** always have to consider thyroid function!! If someone is taking medication for depression and are not seeing any improvement, then a thyroid hormone is usually considered for a more desired therapeutic effect


Are benzodiazepines a good solution for depression?

Usually no. If they are being used, then the duration should be kept short and then have a follow up


What 4 disorders are all related to one another?

sleep disorders
chronic pain


What do antidepressants target?

neurotransmitters that are under-performing


Describe the use of st. John's wort for depression

-multiple active components which impact many neurotransmitters/targets
-effective for mild to moderate depression
-poor evidence in moderate to severe cases
-potential for interacting with prescription medications.


List the 10 potential sites of drug action

1. action potential in presynaptic fiber.
2. synthesis of transmitter
3. storage
4. metabolism
5. release
6. reuptake into the nerve ending or uptake into a glial cell
7. degradation
8. receptor for the transmitter
9. receptor-induced increase or decrease in ionic conductance
10. retrograde singling

** see slide 14 for more info!


Describe the mechanism of action

-enhance impact of neurotransmitter in the synapse (esp. serotonin, norepinephrine and likely DA)
-immediate effects (adverse effects - titrate dose)
-effects on depression: sustained signalling normalizes downstream processes, appears to include gene expression, which increases brain derived neurotrophic factor (and other NF's)
-do not cause addiction or dependency


Describe "brain-derived neurotrophic factor" (BDNF)

-various sites on it help to repair nerve cells, and enhance their function - known as "brain fertilizer"


long-term administration is needed for ___ and _______ benefits

full, optimal


List 4 markers of poor outcomes

-more severe presentation
-longer time undertreated
-increasing number of episodes
-frequency of relapse


List 4 markers of good outcomes

-access to supports
-adherence to treatment
-history of more rapid response
-lower life stressors


What is a pharmacists' role in a patient with depression?

-adverse effect reduction/management


What are some things that can make you susceptible to having depression?

-factors that impact your psych immune system which include psycho-social elements such as feeling connected, valued, supported, or feeling threatened/vulnerable
-life events and stressors, socio-economic factors
-overall physical and medical health