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Flashcards in COPD Deck (115)
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1

COPD results from...

repeated exposure to respiratory irritants that begin to damage the structures of the respiratory system

2

Damage to the large and small airways cause...

increased mucus production, causing arrest in cilia action

3

Increased mucus production leads to...

excessive fluid accumulates with lung mucosal cells or edema

4

Edema leads to...

narrowing of airway passages which leads to airflow limitation

5

Airflow limitation

1. air trapping
2. hyperinflation of the lungs

6

air trapping

decreased airflow with exhalation

7

bronchitis

inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes

8

chronic bronchitis

-disorder of excessive bronchial mucous secretion

-productive cough for 3 or more months in 2 consecutive years

9

Major risk factor for chronic bronchitis

smoking

10

emphysema

destruction of the walls of the alveoli resulting with enlargement of abnormal air spaces

11

What deficiency is there with emphysema?

a1-antitrypsin

12

a1-antitrypsin

enzyme that normally inhibits the activity of proteolytic enzymes and destruction in the lungs

13

Describe progression of emphysema

1. inflammatory cells collect in distal airway lead to destruction of elastic fibers in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
2. which causes alveoli and air spaces to enlarge with loss of corresponding portions of pulmonary capillary beds
3. which leads to surface area of alveolar-capillary diffusion is reduced which affects gas exchange

14

Risk factors for COPD

-smoking (greatest)
-frequent exposure to smoke
-long term exposure to chemical irritants in workplace or hobby
-asthma

15

Short term exposure to smoke or irritants

normally does not pose risk for COPD

16

The key to preventing COPD

not engaging in behaviors that have been linked with etiology of disease

17

Prevention Methods for COPD

-not smoke or quit
-decrease exposure to secondhand smoke
-decrease occupational respiratory irritants
-decrease air pollutants

18

Culture that has a higher risk of developing COPD

Hispanic population due to acculturation, education levels, alcohol, and substance abuse

19

Clinical manifestations of COPD

varies from simple chronic bronchitis without disability to chronic respiratory failure and severe disability

20

FEV1

forced expiratory volume in 1 second measure by spirometer

21

How to measure severity of COPD

FEV1 and symptom manifestations determine the level of COPD

22

Clinical manifestations typically...

absent or minor early in the disease

23

Initial symptoms of COPD

-chronic cough and sputum production

24

initial symptoms tend to begin....

long before changes in pulmonary function

25

When do patients typically seek medical help for COPD symptoms?

after 10 yrs of initial symptoms

26

When does dyspnea occur initially?

Dyspnea initially occurs on extreme exertion and progresses over time

27

Manifestations of chronic bronchitis

-cough with copious amounts of thick, tenacious sputum
-cyanosis
-evidence of right-sided heart failure
-adventitious lung sounds

28

evidence of right-sided heart failure

-distended neck veins
-edema
-liver engorgement
-enlarged heart

29

adventitious lung sounds

-loud rhonchi
-possible wheezes

30

Manifestations of emphysema

-dyspnea (1st symptom)
-cough is minimal or absent
-barrel chest
-client is usually thin
-tachypneic
-uses accessory muscles
-tripod position
-pursed-lip breathing