Flashcards in COPD Deck (115)
COPD results from...
repeated exposure to respiratory irritants that begin to damage the structures of the respiratory system
Damage to the large and small airways cause...
increased mucus production, causing arrest in cilia action
Increased mucus production leads to...
excessive fluid accumulates with lung mucosal cells or edema
Edema leads to...
narrowing of airway passages which leads to airflow limitation
1. air trapping
2. hyperinflation of the lungs
decreased airflow with exhalation
inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchial tubes
-disorder of excessive bronchial mucous secretion
-productive cough for 3 or more months in 2 consecutive years
Major risk factor for chronic bronchitis
destruction of the walls of the alveoli resulting with enlargement of abnormal air spaces
What deficiency is there with emphysema?
enzyme that normally inhibits the activity of proteolytic enzymes and destruction in the lungs
Describe progression of emphysema
1. inflammatory cells collect in distal airway lead to destruction of elastic fibers in the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
2. which causes alveoli and air spaces to enlarge with loss of corresponding portions of pulmonary capillary beds
3. which leads to surface area of alveolar-capillary diffusion is reduced which affects gas exchange
Risk factors for COPD
-frequent exposure to smoke
-long term exposure to chemical irritants in workplace or hobby
Short term exposure to smoke or irritants
normally does not pose risk for COPD
The key to preventing COPD
not engaging in behaviors that have been linked with etiology of disease
Prevention Methods for COPD
-not smoke or quit
-decrease exposure to secondhand smoke
-decrease occupational respiratory irritants
-decrease air pollutants
Culture that has a higher risk of developing COPD
Hispanic population due to acculturation, education levels, alcohol, and substance abuse
Clinical manifestations of COPD
varies from simple chronic bronchitis without disability to chronic respiratory failure and severe disability
forced expiratory volume in 1 second measure by spirometer
How to measure severity of COPD
FEV1 and symptom manifestations determine the level of COPD
Clinical manifestations typically...
absent or minor early in the disease
Initial symptoms of COPD
-chronic cough and sputum production
initial symptoms tend to begin....
long before changes in pulmonary function
When do patients typically seek medical help for COPD symptoms?
after 10 yrs of initial symptoms
When does dyspnea occur initially?
Dyspnea initially occurs on extreme exertion and progresses over time
Manifestations of chronic bronchitis
-cough with copious amounts of thick, tenacious sputum
-evidence of right-sided heart failure
-adventitious lung sounds
evidence of right-sided heart failure
-distended neck veins
adventitious lung sounds