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Flashcards in COPD Deck (118)
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1

What are the main chronic conditions associated with breathlessness?

COPD
Asthma
Interstitial lung disease (Pulmonary fibrosis)
Bronchiectasis
Industrial or occupational lung diseases (asbetosis)
Lung cancer

2

What is asbestosis?

Chronic exposure to asbestos

3

What are the main causes of breathlessness?

Airways become inflamed and narrowed
Mucous plug, reduces cilia beating efficacy
Reduction in elasticity

4

What are the main acute conditions that cause breathlessness?

Flare up of asthma or COPD
Pulmonary embolism/clot in lungs
Pneumothorax/Collapsed lung
Accumulation of fluid of pleural cavity (heart failure), pleural effusion

5

What is dyspnoea?

breathlessness

6

What is orthopnea?

Breathlessness when lying flat

7

Why does heart failure contribute to dyspnoea?

Reduction in stroke volume due to inefficient contractile and diastolic time causes increased volume of blood in pulmonary capillaries --> accumulation of fluid within the pleural space

8

Why does orthopnea occur?

Systemic blood is redistributed, increasing volume present in the pulmonary capillaries
Reduction in respiratory rate when in sedentary position
Reduction in cardiac output due to decline in adrenaline.
Added pressure onto lungs due to increased fluid accumulation

9

Which cardiovascular/systemic conditions cause breathlessness?

Congestive heart failure
Pulmonary oedema
Valvular defects
Acute coronary syndrome
Anaemia

10

What happens during hyperventilation?

Smooth airway muscles and intercostal muscles become tense

11

Why does a panic attack result in breathlessness?

Exaggerated and accelerated build up of physical responses.
Respiratory rate increases
Adrenaline and cortisol is released

12

What are the symptoms of anxiety?

Syncope, sweating, vomiting, pounding heart, shaky limbs.

13

Why does obesity increase breathlessness?

Intercostal muscles weaken, weak muscles have a greater respiratory demand, requiring more oxygen to perform.
Increased effort to expire and be mobile.
Additional weight around abdomen and chest, restricts lung movement

14

Which BMI score is associated with obesity?

25+

15

What condition occurs due to obesity derived breathlessness?

Obesity hypoventilation

16

What is obesity hypoventilation?

Poor breathing contributes to reduced oxygen levels, and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations in blood.

17

What is grade 1 on the degree of breathlessness?

Not troubled by breathlessness except on strenuous exercise

18

Short of breath when hurrying on the level of walking up a slight hill

Grade 2

19

Walks slower than most people on the level, stops after a mile or so, or stops after 15 minutes walking at own pace

grade 3

20

What is grade four on the degree of breathlessness?

Stops for breath after walking about 100 yards or after a few minutes on level ground

21

What is grade five on the degree of breathlessness?

Too breathless to leave the house, breathless when undressing

22

What clinical investigations are performed to investigate FEV1 and FVC?

Breathing and lung function tests using a spirometer

23

How can the breathing rate be measured?

Number of breaths per minute
Auscultate and palpate the chest during breathing

24

Why should heart rate and rhythm be examined for patients presenting breathlessness?

To identify heart failures and the accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavities

25

What clinical examinations are performed for patients presenting breathlessness?

Monitor temperature
Measure, weight, waist, height, BMI
Examine the head, neck, armpits, and identify swollen lymph glands for signs of pathology
Percussion
Auscultation
Palpate

26

What does crackling indicate during auscultation?

Pulmonary fibrosis

27

How is blood saturation monitored?

Pulse oximeter

28

Why is smoking a considerable factor?

Susceptibility to lung cancer, emphysema, COPD and CVD

29

Why should a chest radiography be performed?

Identify signs for heart failure, and pulmonary pathology (pleural effusion)

30

Why should an ECG be performed?

Signs of heart failure, arrhythmia, and pulmonary embolism