COPD Signs, Symptoms, Treatments, diagnosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in COPD Signs, Symptoms, Treatments, diagnosis Deck (25)
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State COPD clinical apearance

  • cough with white/clear sputum 
  • Wheezing and breathlessness 
  • Symptoms worsened by weather, atmospheric conditions
  • Reduced muscle mass, general weakness, hypertension, osteoporosis 


What are typical signs for COPD?

Mild COPD: No signs, quiet wheezes 

Severe COPD: Tachypnoea, poor chest expansio, accessory muscles 


What features would make you suspect COPD? (note that no individual factor is diagnositc) 

  • History of breathlessness and sputum production in someone who smokes
  • Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency 


What result would you expect to see in spriometry test for a COPD patient?

  • FEV/FVC = <70%


What are possible findings of COPD on an X-ray 

  • flattened diaphragm 
  • lung hyperinflation (due to air trapping) 


What other imaging can be useful if an X-ray was not clear?



What discrepancies would you aspect to see in arterial blood gas tests for COPD patient?

  • often normal at rest, but get worst during exercise 
  • In advanced COPD, there may be hypoxemia and hypercapnia


Management and treatment of COPD


Smoking cessation: Most useful measure is to suggest to the patient to stop smoking. This can slow down the rate of disease. 

Bronchodilators: Beta adrenergic agonists, Antimuscarinic drugs, Xanthines 

Corticosteroids: Prenisolone - looking for FEV increase of 15%



Give examples of antimuscarinic drugs

  • Tiotropium
  • Ipratropium 


GIve examples of a corticosteroid used to treat COPD



Label the following components of the spirometry output


Define Tidal volume 

the change in volum of lungs between inspiration and expiration in relaxed breathing  


Define inspiratory reserve volume

The amount of air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume 


Define expiratory reserve volume 

The amount of air that can be expelled after tidal expiration 


Define residual volume 

The amount of volume of air that remains lungs after a full breath - essentially cannot be breathed out - prevents lungs from collapsing 


Define inspiratory capacity 

The total amount ofair that can be inspired after a tidal expiration 


Define functional residual capacity

The amount of air in the lungs after a tidaly expiration


Define vital capacity 

The maximum amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs after maximum inhalation


Define forced expiratory volume 

The maximal volume of gas which can be expired from the lungs in the first second of expiration from full inspiration 


What are the 3 main facotrs which affect FEV1?

Height, age, gender 


Define the Forced Vital capacity (FVC) 

Amount of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible .


What is the FEV1/FVC ratio

The proportion of FVC which can be expelled during the first second of expiration, expressed as a percentage. 


Define peak expiratory flow 

Tests how quickly a person call exhale. 


Explain the differences you would expect to see in spirometry tests between obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung disease. Explain the difference between obstructive and restrictive lung disease (give examples of each) 

Obstructive: When airways are physically obstructed in some way, making it difficult to breath. FEV is lowered with normal FVC. FEV1 and FVC ratio is LOW. Examples include asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis 

Restrictive: Lung expansion is restricted in some way; FEV/FVC ratio is normal although absolute values are lowered - Examples include pulmonary fibrosis (reduced compliance), Sarcoidosis, Scoliosis,  Neuromuscular disease




State tests for COPD 

  • X-ray
  • Spirometry 
  • Bloods (for Alpha-1-Antitrypsin deficiency)  - also to rule out iron deficiency which can cause similar symptoms