Core Immunology - Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Core Immunology - Part 1 Deck (143)
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1

What makes you more likely to get an autoimmune disease

Women
Elderly
Sequestered antigens
Environemntal triggers - infection, trauma-tissue damage, smoking

2

What is the most common genetic susceptibility in autoimmune diseases

In the HLA region aka the MHC protein

3

What does the ACPA antibody in rheumatoid arthritis attach to

MHC

4

Where is MHC I found

on all cells

5

Where is MHCII found

On T cells and APCs

6

Failures in what can cause autoimmune disease

Central tolerance (where self-recognises T cells are destroyed in the thymus)
Peripheral tolerance (where sclf-recogniseing T cells are removed in the lymph nodes by T-reg cells)

7

How do T cells cause inflammation

Inflammatory Cytokines
Helping B cells make autoantibodies

8

How do auto reactive T cells cause clinical disease

Directly cytotoxic
Inflammatory cytokines

9

How do auto reactive B cells cause clinical disease

Directly cytotoxic
Activate the complement system (antibodies bind to C1q)
Interfere with normal physiological function

10

What is organ specific autoimmune disaese

Auto-immunity restricted to that organ
Overlap with other organ specific diseases
Typically autoimmune thyroid

11

What are non organ specific autoimmune diseases

Affects several organs
Auto-immunity assocaited with antigens found on most cells in the body
Overlap with non-organ specific diseases
Typically connective tissues disaeses

12

What is Hashimotos Thyroiditis

Destruction of thyroid follicles
Auto-antibodies to thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin
Results in hypothyroidism

13

What is Grave's diseases

Anti-TSH autoantibodies
Cause hyperthyroidism

14

What is myasthenia gravis

Auto antibodies to the ACh receptor in the NMJ
Quickly fatigued muscles, difficulty keeping eyes open, speaking, swallowing

15

What is pernicious anaemia

Antibodies to parietal cells or intrinsic factor
Cant absorb B12
Get pernicious anaemia (macrocytic anaemia), decreases Hb levels

16

Example of sequestered angtigens

The nuclei of cells

17

How does the nuclei of cells becomes in contact with the immune system

Defective apoptosis or necrosis means the DNA is not destroyed

18

How does SLE occur

Get anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) due the sequestered nuclei being exposed
The ANA and their antigens form immune complex that bind to complement factors and cause inflammation in any tissue

19

How do ANA cause inflammation

Bind to complement factors causing inflammation in any tissue

20

Common features of SLE

Photosensitivity, malar rash, mouth ulcers, arthralgia, arthritis, fatigue, alopecia

Organ invovlement

21

Organ involvement of SLE

Kidneys - Lupus Nephritis
Lungs - pleural effusion/pleurisy
CNS - Cerebral lupus, seizures, comas

22

Testing for SLE

ANA

23

Treatment of SLE

Immunosuppression

24

What are ANCAs

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

25

What are the 3 forms of vasculitis

Microscopic Polyangiitis
Granumaltosis with polyangiitis (wegeners granulomatosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

26

What is a granuloma

mass of inflamed tissued - often get lesion in the URT dance an be destructive leaving cavities

27

What is polyangiitis

Inflammation of many small vessels in the skin, kidney, lungs and gut

28

Treatment of ANCA Vasculitis

Immunosuppression

29

Test for ANCA Vasculities

ANCA antibodies

30

What is primary Raynauds

Common in young women
Runs in family
ANA negative