CORTEXT Basic Science Flashcards Preview

Y2 MSK > CORTEXT Basic Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in CORTEXT Basic Science Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1

Benign or Malignant - Osteochondroma

Benign

2

Benign or Malignant - Endochondroma

Benign

3

Osteochondroma

common bony outgrowth covered in a cartilaginous cap

4

Endochondroma

an intramedullary and usually metaphyseal cartilaginous tumour

5

Brodie's abscess

a lytic lesion of the bone

6

Giant cell tumour

benign, but can be locally aggressive and a tendency for the epiphyses. may be painful and cause pathological fracture

7

Red flags for malignant bone tumours

Constant pain which may be worse at night.
weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite. <25 or >60yrs should be investigated

8

Signs of bony malignancy on x-ray

cortical destruction, periosteal reaction, new bone formation and extension into soft tissue envelope

9

Most common form of bone malignancy

osteosarcoma

10

Most common site for osteosarcoma

Knee (60%)
other locations include the proximal femur, proximal humerous and pelvis

11

Chondrosarcoma

cartilage producing primary bone tumour- less common and less aggressive than osteosarcoma

12

Common sites for chondrosarcoma

pelvis and proximal femur

13

Common age group for Ewing's sarcoma

Teenagers

14

Radiological sign of Ewing's sarcoma

onion skin pattern

15

Genetics of Ewings sarcoma

t11;22 translocation on the EW sarcoma gene on chromosome 22

16

Associated signs and symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma

fever, raised inflammatory markers and warm swelling

17

Common misdiagnosis of Ewings Sarcoma

osteomyelitis

18

Description of an Ewings Sarcoma tumour

small round blue cell tumours

19

Primary treatment of bone tumours

surgery which may include amputation

20

Staging investigations of bone tumours

CT and MRI and bone scan

21

Normal margin of bone tumour removal

3.4cm of bone and a cuff of normal muscle all around

22

How can Lymphoma be involved in primary bone cancer?

can occur as a primary bone tumour from the bone marrow

23

Where does myeloma arise from?

the bone marrow

24

Common cancers which metastasise to the bone

breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, renal cell cancer, thyroid cancer

25

Bones commonly involved in metastases

vertebra, pelvis, ribs, skull, humerus, and long bones of the lower limb