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Flashcards in Coughing in Horses Deck (56)
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1

Coughing in foals + weanlings - DDX - URT

EHV 1+4
equine influenza
strep. equi equi

2

Coughing in foals + weanlings - DDX - LRT

EHV 1+4
equine influenza
undifferentiated resp tract infection
strep zooepidemicus
rhodococcus equi
strep. equi equi
parascaris equorum

3

bacterial pneumonia - causes

strep zooepidemicus + rhodococcus equi most important
actinobacillus, klebsiella, staph aureus, bordatella, mycoplasma

4

bacterial pneumonia - clinical signs

mild pyrexia
cough
auscultable changes

5

bacterial pneumonia - diagnosis

history, clinical signs, further tests

6

bacterial pneumonia - further tests

endoscopy - mucopurulent exudate in trachea
radiography - bronchointerstitial pattern
cytological exam of BAL or tracheal aspirate - incr degenerate neurophils with intracellular bacteria

7

bacterial pneumonia - treatment

antibiotics
rest + dust free environment

8

Coughing in adults - DDX - URT

EHV 1+4
equine influenza
strep. equi equi
EVA

9

Coughing in adults - DDX - LRT

EHV 1+4
equine influenza
strep. equi equi
EVA
equine rhinoviruses
strep zooepidemicus
strep pneumonia
pasteurella/actinobacillus

10

epidemiology - URT

less common than LRT
mainly young horses

11

epidemiology - LRT

common in all racing age groups
bacterial + viral infection can occur together

12

clinical signs - URT

fever
nasal discharge
coughing
enlarged submandibular LN

13

clinical signs - LRT

(fever, nasal discharge)
coughing
mucoid tracheal secretion +/- haemorrhge
poor performance

14

Equine herpes virus 1 + 4

endemic in UK + worldwide
75% have latent infection
stress may activate latent infection
1st exposure as foal from the mare
immunity short

15

site of latency for EHV 1+4

bronchial + submandibular LNs
trigeminal ganglia

16

Equine herpes virus 1 + 4 - pathogenesis

inhalation
replicates in URT epithelium - disseminates to LRT - transports to other organs by T lymphocytes
viaemic for 3 weeks
vasculitis, neurological disease, abortion

17

equine influenza virus

worldwide
highly infectious - via aerosol
vaccinated animals susceptible to infection within 2-3 months
partial immunity may stop clinical signs but allow spreading

18

equine influenza virus - pathogenesis

epithelial cells of upper + lower airways
laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis
loss of ciliated epithelium
compromise of mucocillary mechanism

19

how can URT infection be indentified

clinical signs

20

how can LRT infection be indentified

clinical signs/poor performance
endoscopy + LRT samples - incr degenerate neutrophils, mucopus
haematology - neutropenia/philia, lymphopenia/cytosis, hyperfibrogenaemia

21

how to definitively diagnose EHV 1+4

blood
nasopharyngeal swab
serology - paired samples

22

treating viral infection

isolate
limit stress
NSAIDs - limit pyrexia + improve appetite
specific anti-virals
monitor for secondary infection

23

treating bacterial infection

antibiotics
improve environment, decr dust + stress
anti-pyretics
mucolytics
bronchodilators

24

Equine influenza vaccine

often changing + not entirely effective
necessary for racing - annual booster or within 6m + 21d of competition

25

EHV 1+4 vaccination

natural immunity short - unlikely to improve with vaccine
modified live or inactivated vaccine

26

other causes of coughing - common

RAO, SPAOPD, IAD

27

other causes of coughing - fairly common

aspiration pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, LSHF, epiglottic entrapment, URT foreign body

28

other causes of coughing - uncommon

TB, lungworm, tracheal stenosis/collapse, inhalation pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, neoplasia

29

recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) - define

aka chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
naturally occuring LRT disease - reversible airway obstruction
neutrophil accumulat
bronchospasmion
mucous production
life long disease

30

RAO - pathogenesis

spores + allergens in bronchioles - immune reaction - types 1,2+4
causes bronchoconstriction, mucous production + airway infl