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Flashcards in couples Deck (42)
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one person living alone or people living together, this can be families or friends


nuclear family

the traditional view of a family, a man and woman with dependant children


extended family

family of 3 generations


reconstituted family

a family with a step parent


same sex family

2 same sex parents and a child


19th century victorian family

very patriarchal - male dominated
man owns home and money
wife does domestic labour and brought up children
men were breadwinner - made the money
womens property and belongings given to men when married


functionalist sociologists argument
domestic division of labour

society is built on shared values (consensus) and free from major conflict
they see laws (social policies) as helpful to all


feminists argument
domestic division of labour

all social institutions (e.g. education, religion, family) help to maintain womens inferior (subordinate) position and unequal gender division in the family


Oakley (1974)

found men were starting to help but their contribution to household help was small. Their version of contribution might involve ironing their shirt for work or playing with the children on the weekend.


Boulton (1983)

backed up Oakleys claims when her research fount that less than 20% of husbands has a major role in childcare

found that women take care of their childs security and well being


impact of paid work in todays society

today over 3/4 of women who are married/ in a relationship (cohabiting) are in some form of employment

this contrasts Oakleys study of housewives in 1974 where less than 50% of women had a job

has this led to men taking o the fair share of household duties or whether the wife now has the 'dual burden' of paid work and domestic work


dual burden

when a woman has the responsibility of raising the children, taking care of the domestic chores as well as working outside the home


Young + Wilmott

found that in Bethnal Green the symmetrical family was more common amongst young people



joint conjugal roles are where a couple share housework, childcare and leisure time


Gershuny (1994)

found that couple are more likely to share homework if their parents did


The British Social Attitudes survey (2013)

suggested that less than 10% of under-35s agreed with traditional gender divisions of labour but 30% of over-65s did
this shows a change in cultural norms and values leading to more equal relationships


Arber + Ginn (1995)

found that better paid middle-class women could afford cleaning devices and childcare, meaning they didn't have to do as much and could successfully hod down a career

whereas the working class women can't afford this and so are stuck in low paid part time employment


Ramos (2003)

found that men do more domestic tasks if they are unemployed and the women is the main breadwinner


The March of Progress View

Gershuny fun that housewives did 83% of the housework, whereas those who worked full time did 73%

Gershuny believed the gap between men and women was getting smaller in terms of household duty share


Warde + Hethering

found men would only carry out routine tasks the their partners weren't around


Morris (1990)

found that unemployed men avoided housework as they felt that it degraded their masculinity


Gregson + Lowe (1994)

found that middle class families often hired nannies and cleaners to carry out domestic labour and childcare


Duncombe + Marsden (1995)

argue that women have to perform the 'triple shift' of housework, paid work and emotional work


Dunne (1999)

studied 37 lesbian couples with children and found a much more equal division of labour


radical feminists argue

that heterosexual relationships are patriarchal and will always be unequal


Barrett + McIntosh (1991)

men gain a lot more from womens unpaid domestic work than they actually give back in financial support

the financial support that wives get from husbands is often random an d comes with 'strings attached' (e.g. extra housework)

men usually make decisions about spending on important things (e.g. car/holiday)


Kempson (1994)

working class women are much more unlikely to have an unequal share of money


Vogler (1993) pooling

joint responsibility between partners about the amount of money to spent

and the access to income (joint bank accounts)


Vogler (1993) the allowance system

the man (breadwinner) gives the wife a certain amount of money to spend on households needs
meaning they have to budget and reduce costs
then any money left over goes to the man


Finch (1983)

the lives of women get structured around their husbands careers