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Flashcards in Course intro Deck (25):
1

Which clinical trial is the gold standard?

RCT

2

What are characteristics of clinical trials?

Show safety and efficacy
Randomization
Any differences result of presence/absence of treatment
Low generalizability

3

What are types of outcomes?

Observational
OR
Quasi-experimental study designs

4

What are characteristics of outcomes trials?

No randomization
Differences could be present to underlying differences between groups of people
Highly generalizable

5

What are the types of cohorts?

Closed
Fixed
Open

6

What is a closed cohort?

Group followed from start to pre-defined time end
People cannot enter or leave

7

What is a fixed cohort?

When follow-up time is same for all members of group

8

What is an open cohort?

People can enter or leave cohort over chosen time-frame

9

What are economic outcomes?

Direct and indirect costs

10

What are clinical outcomes?

A1c, asthma control, BP, etc

11

What are humanistic outcomes?

QOL
Satisfaction with care

12

What is a prevalent user?

Those who are using drug before analysis

13

What is an incident user?

Those who start using drug during analysis

14

How do we calculate the exposed incidence rate?

R(exposed) = (# w/outcome) / (Total number exposed)

15

How do we calculate the unexposed incidence rate?

R(unexposed) = (# w/outcome) / (Total number unexposed)

16

How is the risk ratio calculated?

R(exposed)/R(unexposed)

17

What does a risk ratio = 1 mean?

No difference in risk

18

What does a risk ratio > 1 mean?

Increased risk

19

What does a risk ratio < 1 mean?

Decreased risk

20

What is the risk difference?

R(exposed) - R(unexposed)

21

What is a good control?

Member of the controls would be a case if they developed the condition

22

What are control sources?

Population
Hospital/clinic
Friend/spouse/relative

23

What are sources of exposure?

Self-report
Administrative records

24

What are forms of self-report?

Telephone
In-person questionnaire
Self-administered (online)
Most common

25

Where are administrative records taken from?

Hospital/clinic records
Claims data**