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Flashcards in CPR Thoracic Radiology Deck (15)
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Which ribs are most commonly fractured?

Ribs 4-10


What is the best modality to assess rib fractures?

CT better than xray


What are rib fractures usually associated with?

Pneumothorax, hemothorax, injuries to spleen/liver/kidney


What is a tension pneumothorax?

When air enters thorax and cannot exit, can be due to trauma or ventilator. Lung collapses and impairs O2 venous return = cardiac arrest


What is a spontaneous pneumothorax?

Spontaneous rupture of alveoli through visceral pleura causing air to leak into cavity and lung to collapse over time. Smoking, COPD, CF, and inherited apical bleb are all risk factors


What is a pulmonary meniscus sign?

Seen on xray with pleural effusion, is due to surface tension between serous fluid and pleural effusion in the pleural cavity


What is a coin sign?

Round, solitary shadow seen on xray. Can be due to TB, neoplasm, cyst, or vascular anomalies


What are Kerley lines? What can cause them?

Seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent.

Pulmonary edema, lymphoma, other cancers, pneumonia


What are Kerley A lines?

Diagonal lines running from hila to periphery


What often causes Kerley A lines?

Distention of anatamosic channels btwn peripheral and central lymphatics


What are Kerley B lines?

Short parallel lines at periphery, perpendicular to pleura


What is cardiac tamponade?

Fluid buildup in pericardial cavity that obstructs blood flow due to heart compression. Is a medical emergency


What are symptoms of cardiac tamponade?

Beck's triad: distant heart sounds, jugular distension, hypotension


What is an aortogram (DSA)?

digital subtractive angiogram - image taken before and after dye is introduced. First image subtracted out to increase clarity of vessels


What is an echocardiogram?

Ultrasound provides pictures of heart's valves and chambers, allows for evaluation of heart's pumping action. Red indicates flow toward probe, blue is flow away. Can see turbulence or regurg