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Flashcards in CPS statement volume 4 Deck (91)
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Which of the following is false?
a)formal training contributes to quality child care
b)high quality childcare may have positive effects on both behavioural and cognitive domains
c) for profit daycare centres had better scores than non profit centres in one study
d) only 16% of Canadians have access to regulated child care

c)false, the opposite, non profit was betteroverall quality was 60%, non profit was 62% vs 55% for for profit , need 67% to promote child development

for children at lowest income level, amount of non parental care directly proportional to household income
having at least an associate degree in early childhood education is recommended in the USA - in Canada 30% have ECE in homes, 36% in childcare centres
evidence is hard to study - methods issues, etc. lots of conflicting evidence' good quality childcare can have benefits
d) true only 16% have access to regulated chip care, 50% in Quebec, Quebec 5$ per day, Manitoba also set a price
other Canadian provinces no
better language outcomes when good quality childcare compared to family member


What is the recommended caregiver to adult ratio for a 29 month old child?
a) 3:1
b) 4:1
c) 5:1
d) 7:1

b) 4:1

AAP and American Publich Heath recommends:
for <24 months 3:1
for 24-30 month: 4:1
for 30-36 month: 5:1
for 36 months: 7:1 or less

the promotes more interaction for the child

very few onsite child care facilities in Canada, should consider getting more


Which of the following statements is false?
a) children in daycare have more foreign body aspirations that those cared for at home
b) children who spend more time in non parental child care have a reduced risk of unintentional injury
c) very few injuries are a result of purely environmental factors
d) most daycare injuries occur in boys on playground equipment, most injuries occur 1 hour before lunch

a) false - based on a Canadian study, more cuts/abrasions in the daycare group, but statistically fewer burns, poisonings and foreign body insertions compared with the nondaycare (control) group. most injuries were play yard injuries/collisions with other child etc.

b) true - might be because family day homes and daycare centres provide better supervision or safer equipment to play on
c) true - San Fran study - 56% child factors 42.9 % child and environment, 1.5% environment alone - supervision is critical


Which of the following is not a recommended intervention to make child care centres safer?
a) all personnel should be trained in PALS
b) play equipment should meet the current Canadian standards association
c) an injury reporting procedure and form should be available in all childcare centres
d) checklists may help make daycare centres more safe

a) false - should be trained in basic first aid and CPR


Which of the following age groups of children had the greatest respiratory illness sick days?
a) children in daycare age 3 months
b) child in daycare > 1 year old
c) children not in daycare age >3 months

b) children in daycare who are 1 or older
for the kids younger than 3 months - no huge effect, perhaps protection from maternal antibodies
thought to have protective effective of maternal antibodies or because this age group can't move around and pick up germs as easily

daycare children every 9h in daycare 12% increase in respiratory sick days 3 fold increase in children without siblings
after 6 months in daycare, fewer otitis, URTI, conjunctivitis (compared to children fewer than 6 months in daycare)


Which of the following infections is known to be transmitted in childcare settings?
a) HIV
b) hepatitis B
c) hepatitis C
d) Helicobacter pylori

d) Helicobacter pylori, CMV and skin infections are transmitted

GI illnesses : rotavirus, vaccine helps, handwashing/purrell
vaccine preventable illness - pertussis (consider getting daycare workers updated for this), immunize children as per he schedule, annual influenza, ensure that tetanus and diphtheria are current

hep B small chance of infection with skin broken
HIV unlikely hep C unlikely


Which of the following children should be excluded from daycare?
a)8month old with mild RSV who is feeling well
b) 3 year old with bloody diarrhea
c) 2 year old with bacterial conjunctivitis who started antibiotics 2 days ago
d) 5 year old with strep pharyngitis who started antibiotics 4 days ago

b) bloody diarrhea should not attend
for diarrhea - should exclude if can't contain by diaper, can't control by toilet trained child or signs of bacterial enteritis (fever, blood, mucus in stool)
child care centre should talk to public health- different policies for exclusion for shigella, ecoli, campylobacter, salmonella and giardia)

respiratory conditions can attend as well as well enough to participate (there is another part in the statement that talks about daycares making exclusions for children no being able to attend with URTI if they are on antibiotics, and how this might be related to increased antibiotic use)
for strep pharyngitis or bacterial conjunctivitis, after 24 hours of antibiotics can attend daycare


Which of the following is true?
a)currently, Canadian daycares are not obligated to have a policy on the management of a sick child
b) there are many sick child care centres in Canada
c) employers should not consider providing penalty free time off for parents to care for their sick children who are excluded from child care

a) true - currently not obligated to have a policy on the management of a sick child, but helpful for daycare providers to know about common conditions and serious infections

b) false - unknown exactly how many but doesn't seem like much
c) false, they should do this, one study showed that working moms needed 5.6-28.8 days off of work each year to take care of their sick children


Which of the following has not been linked to poor oral health?
a) poor growth
b)excess iron
c) poor sleep
d) poor learning
e) low birth weight

b) in fact iron deficiency has been linked

the others have all been linked
as well associated with trouble with development, self-esteem, communication, worse attendance at school and parental absence at work


Which of the following is the most common chronic childhood disease in children age 5-17?
a)ulcerative colitis
c) tooth decay

c) tooth decay - reported to be the most common by the CDC report, 5x more common in children aged 5-17

57% of Canadian school aged kids have had a cavity, on average 2.5 teeth are affected by each


What is the definition of early childhood caries?

one or more decayed, missing (due to cavities) or filled primary tooth in a preschool aged child


What is the prevalence of early childhood caries in some indigenous communities in Canada? As high as:
a) 5%
b) 25%
c) 75%
d) 90%

d) as high as 90% in some indigenous communities, in comparison, in advantaged Canadian communities, as low as 6-8%


What is the most common surgery performed in most Canadian children's hospitals?
b) bronchoscopy
c) tonsiloadenoidectomy
d) extraction of teeth under anaesthesia

d) extraction of teeth under general anaesthesia for cavities, most common surgery in most Canadian hospitals

dental health - was not included in the final Romanow Commission report on the Future of Health Care in Canada in 2002; since then, there have been some steps to draw more attention to the subject
very bad wait times got a D - only 50-59% in appropriate wait time, very expensive costs to the heath care system, often after extraction get another cavity soon after (especially first nations)


True or false : dental care is covered under the Canada Health Act

false - historically not considered essential to care, and therefore not covered (ppl pay for most of their own dental care)


Name the tenets of the Canada Heath Act

publicly administered, universal, portable, accessible and comprehensive
Canadians pay for dental care in four different ways: through third-party insurance (employment-related dental coverage); through private dental insurance; by paying directly out-of-pocket; or through government-subsidized programs (eg, First Nations Non-insured Health Benefits [NIHB] or Veterans’ Affairs).


How many Canadians have no dental insurance?

62% have private insurance, 6% have public insurance (so not that many!)
public programs don't reimburse nearly as much as private ones, can lead to discrimination from dentists who won't accept them (based on one study)
the working poor are the most marginalized by this system
50% of Canadians in the lower income bracket don't have insurance


Which province has the lowest publicly funded dental care?
a) Ontario
b) Alberta
c) Yukon
d) Nunavut

a) Ontario - lowest publicly covered dental health 1.5%
in Nunavut the highest 77%

The Canadian government’s per capita public expenditure on dental treatment has increased from $11.00 in 1975 to just $19.54 in 2010, whereas private sector spending has almost tripled over the same period (from $135 to $379 per capita).[


Name 3 factors important to counsel patients to reduce dental caries

1. reduce bottle propping
2. reduce juice consumption
3. improve diet
4. water fluoridation
5. use fluoridated toothpaste, counsel people to brush teeth


How many communities in Canada have fluoridated water?

only 45.1 %, in Ontario higher (76%) vs 1.5% in newfoundland and labrador
the canadian dental association endorses water fluoridation and topical fluoride use


Name one group that should receive regular topical fluoride?

First Nations and other high risk groups (
recent cochrane review
separate statement on this, need to review it


Which organism is most commonly associated with early childhood caries?

Streptococcus mutans
transmitted from caregiver to infant
can also be transmitted horizontally in child care setting
window for infectivity 19-31 months of age
early intervention for the caregiver and counselling are important strategies to decrease transmission to the child
early childhood caries - most likely to have cavities later


True or false - universal access to dental care will eliminate disparities in dental care

false - one study suggests that this won't happen, there are more complicated factors that influence dental care

other things that can affect - distance/lack of dentists (i.e. First Natons) medically complex children (in this case, some dentists not trained, can also lead to delaying of procedures


True or false - all provinces offer some support for dental care for children on income assistance

true - for these kids, all provinces provide some help
in general dental health is a provincial responsibility
low income families usually get some provisions (look at the list for details0
often further targeted provisions in legislation concerning children with disabilities or children in foster care
overal treatment based rather than preventative based


Ideally, when should children have their first dental visit?

within 6 months after their first tooth appears, no later than 1 year old (Canadian Dental Association), AAP says the same thing
Rourke baby record 9-15 months for the first visit
but most people don't follow this, limited uptake
most physicians don't get any training in oral health
need surveillance and research


True or false Long term studies of lacto-ovo-vegetarians suggest that they can get enough energy intake from their diet

true there have been studies of these veggies (who each milk and eggs) and we know they can get enough energy to grow, insufficient evidence for vegans

2% of 6-17 year olds in US say vegetarian, 0.5% vegan


True or false - protein intake needs to be increased for children who are on vegetarian diets

this is true, because the proteins from plant sources have lower digestibility (so need more of them
increase by 30-35% for 6 year old
Therefore, recommended protein intakes are adjusted upward for children in the range of 10% to 15% compared with nonvegetarians
soy protein - can be as effective as animal protein
wheat protein - may be 50% as good as animal protein


Name the major plant sources of protein

legumes (beans and lentils), cereals, nuts and seeds, butters; Combining complementary proteins in each meal, however, is not believed to be necessary for children who eat often throughout the day


True or false - vegetarian children need more iron than meat eating children to avoid getting iron deficient

true- may need up to 1.8 x more iron because of different bioavailability
certain things like vitamin C (and other components in vegetables) enhance the absorption of non heme iron)
Other substances such as dietary fibre, phytates and tannins may inhibit absorption, and, therefore, a balance must be achieved
good iron sources - include iron fortified cereals, grain products, dried peas and beans, or supplementation
may need supplementation during periods of rapid growth
overal studies do suggest that they can maintain their iron levels if they follow good practices above


All of the following improve the bioavailability of zinc except the following?
a) phytates
b) sprouting seeds and grains
c) fermenting
d) none of the above (all improve the bioavailability)

a) phytates which are found in high quantities in vegetarian diets decrease the bioavailability of zinc

the others are ways to increase the bioavailabiily of zinc
breastfeeding gives sources of zinc until about 7 months
zinc deficiency is rare
vegans may need 60% more than omnivores
most zinc comes from animal protein
additional supplementation not recommended, but should eat high zinc foods (i.e. legumes, nuts, yeast-leavened breads, fermented soy products, etc)


True or false - calcium content in breastmilk is lower in the milk of a vegan mother

false - calcium content is unaffected by the intake of a vegan mother
overal, calcium deficiency is rare in lacto-ovo vegetarians (since they likely eat lots of dairy), however, do need to think about it in vegans (have shown that they can have lower than recommended calcium)
after weaning, ensure enough calcium intake fortified soy products, cereals, juices and leafy vegetables. Low-oxalate greens (bok choy, Chinese cabbage, kale, collards, etc) provide highly bioavailable calcium for the older child. may need supplementation