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Flashcards in Crime and punishment Deck (84):
0

How many death penalty offences were there in 1660s?

50 offences

1

In what year were there 160 death penalty offences?

1750

2

In 1815, how many death penalty offences were there?

288 offences

3

Who was appointed High sheriff of Bedfordshire?

John Howard

4

What did the gaols act of 1774 promote?

Improved health and sanitation in prisons

Due to John Howard

5

What did John Howard want to be changed about prisons?

Christian teachings
Decent food
Work
Better health and sanitation

6

What prison did Elizabeth Fry visit and what did she find?

Newgate prison in London

Found women and children living in poor conditions of disease and violence

7

What did Elizabeth Fry do to change prisons and reform prisoners?

Began a school and Bible group inside Newgate prison in 1817
Taught people skills like sowing so they could get jobs and money
Gave prisoners clothes
Treated prisoners with kindness and respect to show God's love

8

In 1823, what act did Sir Robert Peel pass?

Gaols Act

9

What did Robert Peel do to change prions?

Paid gaolers
Prison inspections
Visits by Chaplain and doctors
More work and basic education
Women gaolers for female prisoners
Clean separate cells
New prison building programmes
Reduced death penalty offences

10

How many new prisons were built in 1877 due to Robert Peel?

90 prisons

11

In what year was the Pentoville Prison built?

1842

12

In what year did Fry start a school and Bible group inside a prison?

1817

13

What type of goods were smuggled?

Highly taxed goods

Tea, cloth, wine, tobacco, lace, alcohol, drugs
People - prostitutes or illegal labourers

14

What was the tax rate of tea in the mid nineteenth century?

119%

15

How many people were wanted for smuggling?

1,748,103 people

70% of them farm workers

16

Why was smuggling not seen as a crime?

Victimless crime
1,748,103 people (70% farmers)
Highly taxed goods stolen
Community involved - vicar
Robert Walpole (later PM) used gov't ships to smuggle wine
In London from 2 - 6am
3/4 Tea in country smuggled
Earn 6 or 7 times farmers wage

17

What was tea tax rate in 1784?

Mid 18th Century: 119%
1784 (due to Pitt PM): 12.5%

18

Why did smuggling reduce?

1690 mounted customs officers
1700 water guard with ships to patrol the coast
People turned to other crimes like highway robbery
1780's Suffolk Army used
Harsh punishments
Tea no longer profitable to smuggle

19

What was the Vagrancy Act?

Law that made it a criminal offence to sleep rough/beg/be homeless etc.

20

When did Henry Fielding become a magistrate and where?

1748
Bow Street

21

When was the Preventative Plan set up, due to who and what was it?

1772-3
Henry Fielding
got rid of Hue and Cry Act

22

What did John Fielding do in regard to policing?

1775 - states the need for a system of trained professionals
Increased no. of petty constables
High constables to reside on main roads into London
Creation of mounted force and patrols

23

When were the Bow Street Runners set up?

1749
Due to Henry Fielding

24

When was Robert Peel appointed Home Secretary?

1822

25

When are the Bow Street runners abolished?

1839

26

When was the County Dural Police Act and what did it state?

1856

All counties must have a police force

27

When was the CID set up?

1878

28

When was the Detective branch of the Met Police set up?

1842

29

What policing methods were used from the 12th Century to 1400?

Tithing
Hue and Cry
Constables - 12 months, part time
Watchmen

30

When was Jonathan Wild a thief taker?

1711- 1725 (hanged))

31

When was the fingerprint squad introduced at Scotland Yard?

1901

32

What was the overall effect of policing?

Reduced crime overall
Eventually became popular

33

Pre 1800 how were women their husbands possession?

Men had right to property
Men had right to children
Men had right to money
Men controlled the law
Husband is able to chastise his wife - beat with moderation, thumb rule 1782, verbal abuse

34

Who passed the 'thumb rule' and when?

Sir Francis Buller
1782
States man can beta his wife with a stick no wider than his thumb

35

What was the Matrimonial act?

Women are given then right to separate from their husbands

36

When was Women's Aid set up and what did they do?

1971

Provide emotional and legal support to women

37

What did Erin Pizzey set up?

First refuge in Chiswick, West London
Eventually at up nationals
Provided tea, emotional support and shelter
Helped women relocate
Run on charitable donations

38

How did Jack Ashley MP help with the domestic violence campaign?

First MP to raise it in parliament
Drew attention to the women's rights campaign
Spoke about Erin Pizzey and her work

39

How did women's liberation raise awareness of domestic violence?

1971+
NHS and social services set up
Police now interfere with more private matters
More female political power
Use if media and technology
Coordination of services

40

When was the non-molestation order set up?

1976

41

When were the domestic violence acts set up?

1976

2004 (both women and men)

42

When was rape within marriage made illegal?

1991

43

When was the Family Law Act set up?

1996

44

Why was domestic violence not considered a crime Pre 1900?

Husband is able to chastise his wife
Little law enforcement by police
People still believed domestics violence was in the lower classes and associated with alcohol and private lives
Police didn't interfere with private matters in the home

45

When was transportation abolished?

1868

46

How many people went over to Australia as part of transportation?

160,023

47

When was gold discovered in Australia?

1851

48

What was conscription?

Law introduced that states everyone of a certain age (18-41) who is fit and healthy must fight in armed forces

49

What is a conscientious objector?

A person refusing to fight in a war on moral, religious or political grounds

50

Define alternativists

Refused to take pert in war but would do alternative non-combat work
Drive ambulances, stretcher bearers, bomb disposal
Sent to gov't work camps and quarries

51

Define absolutists

Thought war was fundamentally wrong
Refused to do anything that helped the war effort
Sent to prison

52

When were witchcraft laws abolished?

1736

53

When was the last execution for witchcraft?

1685

54

Who was Ruth Ellis?

Last woman to be executed in UK

55

When did Elizabeth Fry visit Newgate prison?

1817

56

When was conscription introduced in the First World War?

1916

57

When was conscription introduced in the Second World War?

April 1939 for men
December 1941 for women

58

How many people refused to fight in each world war?

WW1: 16,000 men
WW2: 59,000 men and women

59

How many conscientious objectors were exempt from conscription in each war?

WW1: only 400 given total exemption on ground of conscience
WW2: 46,796 complete or partial exemption

60

What happened to absolutists in WW1?

Imprisoned
Given brutal treatment
Hard labour - forced

10 died in prison, 63 after release and 31 breakdowns

61

Why were there more conscientious objectors in WW2?

Know what war is like - don't want to return
Friends/family died
Family returned tell them the horror of what it is like

62

Define church courts

Dealt with priests, monks and nuns and those who refused to pay a tenth of their income to church

63

Define manor courts

Dealt with ordinary villagers on countryside
Rules set by ordinary landowners

64

Define royal courts

Dealt with all serious crimes
Dealt with all types of people
Crimes divided into seriousness

65

What 3 reasons could women go to court for?

If her husband was murdered and be died in her arms
Someone attacked her leading to the loss of an unborn child
Rape

66

What method is preventing crime were used in medieval times?

Making a group of 10 people (tithing) responsible for each others actions
Hue and cry
Deterring people by punishment
Church teachings

67

What were the reasons for medieval crime waves

Rising unemployment
Rising prices
Weak government
Corrupt judges

68

During medieval times whets two method decided guilt of accused?

Witness by neighbours
Trial by jury

69

Why did the number of beggars increase during the 16th century

Closure of monasteries took away support for the poor
Population increase
Pressure on food and jobs
Landowners kept sheep instead of growing crops meant fewer workers

70

Why was begging treated harshly as a crime?

Cost of supporting beggars resorted by communities
Poor people turned to crimes like theft
Travelling beggars threat to communities

71

What law was passed in 1531?

Law passed by parliament separated the 'deserving poor' from 'sturdy beggars'
Needed a licence to beg

72

What was the first vagrancy act and when?

Forced beggars to work
Whipped and branded

73

Who were appointed Justices of the Peace and when?

Landowners
By 1400

74

What did Henry VII do in regard to witchcraft and when?

Made witchcraft a capital offence
1542

75

What did James I write a book about and when?

Demonologie
About how witches are vermin and how to catch them
1597

76

When was the last execution in England for witchcraft?

1684
Alice Molland in Exeter

77

What happened as a result of Ruth Osborne dying due to the swimming test?

1751 in Tring, Hertfordshire
Main ringleaders executed for murder
Attitudes of authorities has changed

78

When was the National Women's Aid Federation established?

1974

79

What did Henry VII do in regard to witchcraft and when?

Made witchcraft a capital offence
1542

79

What did James I write a book about and when?

Demonologie
About how witches are vermin and how to catch them
1597

80

When was the last execution in England for witchcraft?

1684
Alice Molland in Exeter

81

What happened as a result of Ruth Osborne dying due to the swimming test?

1751 in Tring, Hertfordshire
Main ringleaders executed for murder
Attitudes of authorities has changed

82

When was the National Women's Aid Federation established?

1974