Flashcards in CRJS 222 Chapter 5 Deck (35):
1.The use of volunteer, self-appointed committees organized to suppress crime and punish criminals.
2. Flourished from mid 1700s to about 1900.
3. Historically enforced the norms of society rather than the law.
1st publicly funded city police departments-- to keep slaves from rebelling or running away.
The English Model (EM)
Policing in England (London Metropolitan Police Department) featured a decentralized or local patrol force, limited authority, the mission of preventing crime, and a quasimilitary organizational structure.
EM - Frankpledge
Peacekeeping system in early England in which a group of 10 local families agreed to maintain the peace and make sure lawbreakers were taken into custody and brought to court.
EM- Watch System
System in which particular men were assigned the job of watchmen and became responsible for patrolling the streets, lighting lanterns, serving as a lookout for fires, and generally keeping order. Replaced Frankpledge system.
Metropolitan Police Department
Sir Robert Peel - had clear hierarchical structure ranks of command (Sergeants, lieutenants, captains). Also known as "bobbies". They wore uniforms that made them identifiable. (limited authority)
EM- Prevention Patrol
Officers maintaining a visible presence in communities to serve as a deterrent to a variety of street-level crimes.
-The U.S. police gained legitimacy from being "of" the people, particularly of the same ethnic background.
Members of teams from Massachusetts that were well-prepared militia companies of select men from the American colonial partisan militia during the American Revolutionary War.
1. The oldest state-level law enforcement agency in the U.S.
2. The state police of Texas, originally formed in the 19th century to defend outlying regions against Indians and Mexicans and to fight lawlessness.
Any person in the employ of one of the federally recognized sovereign tribal governments, whose traditional lands and territories lie within the borders of the state of Washington, to enforce the criminal laws of that government.
Political Era: Patronage-Based Policing
2. Locally political bosses selected members of their party to be police officers as a reward for party loyalty.
3. Role was to control undesirable immigrants, maintain order, and provide a variety of social services.
4. Officers received little if any training.
5. Use of force was common.
Profession Era: The Police as Law Enforcers
1. Later 1029s-1970s
2. Began in response to the many problems of the political era and major reforms
- Formal hierarchical government agencies created
-Direct attempts to end corruption
-Embraced science and new technologies
3. Law enforcement emerged as the primary function of police officers
Community Policing Era: Working for--and with-- the Public
1. 1970s to present time
2. Emphasizes crime prevention and focuses on developing positive relationships between the police and the public
3. Officers expected to cultivate positive relationships with individuals in the communities they serve
-Shift from reactive to proactive police work
1. Tend to serve larger areas and fewer people
2. Typically police counties in which no city provides law enforcement services
1. Serve smaller, urban areas and more people
2. Outnumber sheriffs' offices by 4 to 1
3. Respond to violations of state penal codes and local ordinances and generally provide only temporary housing of arrested persons
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
Deals with violations of federal statutes
Department of Justice (DOJ)
1. The chief federal law enforcement department
2. Provides federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime
3. FBI: mission is to protect and defend the US against terrorism and foreign intelligence threats and to uphold and enforce the nation's criminal laws
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
Mission is the enforce the nation's laws and regulations governing controlled substances
Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)
Enforcing federal laws, regulating the firearms and explosives industries, and investigating and reducing crimes involving firearms, acts of arson, and the illegal trafficking of alcohol and tobacco products.
U.S. Marshal's Service
Apprehend federal fugitives, protect the federal judiciary, operate the Witness Security Program, transport federal prisoners, and seize property acquired by criminals through illegal activities.
Agencies must find qualified applicants, but face significant challenges
1. Better-paying jobs outside law enforcement
2. Negative publicity over matters like alleged discrimination in arrests and excessive use of force
3. Very high demand for officers
1. More professional after the input of major studies
2. Some departments still advertise the adventure aspect over community service, contributing to a siege mentality.
3. Background checks are vital.
Demographics of Candidates
1. Greater disparity is in gender; some departments reluctant to hire women.
2. There is a long history of discrimination against African Americans
3. Improvement in both areas over time, but disparities remain.
1. States have special training academies
2. Each state has its own training requirements
1. Rookies receive basic recruit training, then training in the field under a senior officer
2. Adult learning is rapidly replacing the traditional lecture form of academy instruction
3. Stimulation-based training uses technology to simulate field conditions
A set of norms and beliefs held by most officers in a given country
Police Organizational subculture
Norms and beliefs particular to an individual department
1. Officers must support each other
A.) "Blue code of silence" places loyalty to fellow officers above all other values
Authority to act in a manner that officers judge most appropriate for a given situation.
Police Discretion Advantages
1. Allows officers to act in the most just manner in a given situation
2. Allows officers to decide where to focus their energies
Police Discretion Disadvantages
1. Susceptible to the temptation to abuse the authority of discretion
2. Possibility that decisions could be influence by race, ethnicity, class, gender, or sexuality.
Abuse of Authority (AoA) (Misuse of Authority)
Police disregard for policies, rules, or laws in the performance of their duty.
1. Officers who misuse their authority may face criminal prosecution
2. Police departments and cities can also be civilly liable for failures to act.
AoA- Noble Cause
Justification for wrongdoing committed by an officer based on the premise that the end justifies the means
Police Corruption (PC)
Misuse of authority for personal gain, such as skimming seized narcotics monies.
PC - Organizational Explanations for Police Corruption
Corruption attributed to the police occupational subculture, especially the "code of silence".