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Flashcards in Crop Establishment Deck (29):
1

Seed Quality tag

  • info on seed tag
    • pure seed
    • other varieties
    • other crops
    • noxious weeds
    • objectionable weeds
    • total weed seed
    • inert matter
    • germination
    • hard seed
    • seed grade

2

high seed quality

  • high percentage of pure seed
  • low percentage of
    • other varieties 
    • other crops
    • noxious weeds
    • objectionable weeds
    • total weed seed
    • hard seed
    • inert matter
  • high germination %
  • high tolerance to environment
  • high resistance to diseases

3

Conditions that can reduce seed quality

  • early freezes
  • excessive moisture and disease
  • alternate wetting / drying cycles
  • improper combine settings
  • improper storage causing heating and diseases
  • improper use of grain handling equipment

4

Storage or seeds

  • good storage
    • seeds stored under refridgeration
    • at low humidity 
      • more important than temp
    • in sealed containers
  • as storage length increases, viability decreases

5

Advantages of using seed treatments

  • seed treatment designed to allow seed to
    • germinate
    • emerge 
    • and stand in cost effective manner
  • Seed treatments include
    • fungicides
      • facilitate seedling disease control
    • microbial inoculants
      • improve n fixation in legume
    • plant growth regulators
      • help emergence and seedling growth
    • fertilizers
      • add essential nutrients

6

Limitations of seed treatments

  • treatment may not work
  • not cost effective
  • improperly applied
  • cause poorer seed quality
  • *fungicides do not protect crop on longterm basis

7

Advant Bacterial incoulants for legumes

  • used to increase N fixation in legumes
  • only useful if soil does not contain right strain of bacterium
  • can increase
    • nodulation of legume
    • N fixation
    • yield
  • most succesful when used on legume crop that has not been grown on field for extended time
    • or where inoculum survival is poor

8

Storage for bacterial inoculants

  • as storage time increases, viability decreases
    • expiration date
  • storage conditons decreases, viability decreases
    • instructions given by manufacturers
  • seed should be planted within 12 hours of inoculaiton

9

Warm  / Cold germination Tests

Warm Test

  • uses optimum soil moisture and temp to estimate germination under optimum conditions

Cold Test

  • uses wet, cold condiitons to stimulate stress on a seed planted under these conditions

 

10

Benefits of certified seed

  • yields often higher
  • represents latest technology
    • stable high yields
    • pest resistance
    • crop quality

11

Pure live seed calculation

  • Pure Live Seed = pure seed content multiplied by germination 
  • Example
    • pure seed content 96%
    • germination is 98%
    • the PLS = .96  x  .98 = .94 PLS or 94% PLS
  • Seeding Rate
    • if seed rate is 50 lbs acre
    • then seed need would by 50 / .94
      • or 53 lbs acre

12

Seed Lot definition

  • quantity of seed that has the same characteristics within approved limits or tolerances
    • characteristics include
      • amounts of pure seed
      • other crop seed
      • weed seed 
      • inert matter
      • germination percentage
      • dormant seed

13

Affect on seed germination

Soil Temp

  • germination rate and % will be highest within temp range that varies with each crop
    • some crops germinate over small temp range, others large 

14

Affect on seed germination

Soil Moisture 

  • soil water between field capacity and permanent wilting percentages is needed

15

Affect on seed germination

Seed / Soil contact

  • seed soil contact necessary for imbitition of water to initiate germination process

16

Depth of planting / emergence

  • adjusted after considering 
    • temp, moisture, aeration, light
    • physical condition of soil (crusting)

17

Conditions that alter recommended planting depth

  • excessive moisture at normal depth
  • lack of moisture
  • low / high temps

18

Factors that influence planting date (7)

  • soil temp
  • soil moisture
  • soil aeration
  • soil problems absent (salinity, extremes in pH)
  • avail of labor and equipment
  • aniticpated weather patterns
  • adaptation of crop to soil and climatic conditions

19

Consequences of seeding Earlier / later the optimum

  • Delayed germination
  • stand losses
  • replanting
  • loss of yield

20

How Planting Practices affect seeding rates

  • if plants per acre remain constant 
    • seed planted per row foot will decrease as rows become narrower
  • If plants per acre increase,
    • seed planted per row foot will also increase as rows become narrower

21

Soil Tilth affect seeding rates

  • Poor soil tilth causes less germination and emergence
    • necessitating higher seed rates

22

Soil Salinity affect seeding rates

  • Can reduce stands and cuase seeding death
  • removing salts by using soil amendments and leaching is preferable to increasing seedling rate

23

Environmental Conditions affect seeding rates

  • Adverse climate conditions lead to less germination
    • necessitating higher seeding rates

24

Crop Residue affect on seeding rates 

  • can reduce seed germination and emergence, necessitating higher seeding rates

25

Seed Size affect on seeding rates

  • as seed size increases, seeds per bushel decreases 
  • higher seed rates recommended

26

Seed Quality affect on seeding rates

  • as % of pure seed and germination percentage decreases, higher seeding rate recommended

27

advant and limitations of applying fertilizer at seeding

  • can be applied in furrow below the seed, with the seed or on seed
  • advantages
    • smaller amounts of fertilizer than broadcast
    • early response to fertilizer
  • disadvantage
    • potential to reduce germination
    • damage seedlings from fertilizer components

28

Calculate plant Population in Field

  • number of plants per a given row counted in several randoms locations
  • mean is computed
  • plants / acre = (plants / ft) x (43,560 ft /acre) / (row spacing (in) / 12in/ft)
  • plants / acre = (plants / ft) x (43,560 ft /acre)

29

Seeding Rate vs Plant Pop vs Harvest Pop

  • seeding rate - seeds planted per acre
  • plant pop - number of plants per acre
  • harvest pop - number of plant pop at harvest