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Flashcards in Harvest and Storage Deck (23):

Following Factor influences when to harvest

Crop Moisture percentage

  • of grain or forage affects
    • harvest
      • crop has optimum moisture content
        • too high moisture quality may decline
          • post harvest must dry grain
    • quality of harvest
    • post harvest procedures


Following Factor influences when to harvest

Hybrid / Variety characteristics

  • Each hybrid has a given maturity date
    • will vary due to other factors
      • planting date
      • weather
      • crop management


Following Factor influences when to harvest

End Use

  • if for a specific purpose, very narrow window of crop quality exists
    • if being used for other purposes, window widens


Following Factor influences when to harvest


  • Direct impact
    • weather can delay harvest as most crops should be harvested at a
      • given grain moisture content
      • moisture content in canopy
  • indirect Impact
    • weather can alter the growth and development of the crop
    • changes harvest date 


Following Factor influences when to harvest

Pest Damage

  • can reduce yield and crop quality can be decreased by a timely harvest


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

Temp, moisture, aeration

  • seeds should be stored
    • under refridgeration
    • at low humidity
    • in sealed containers
  • longer storage, lower viability
  • *low humidity more important than temp in most situations 


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

Stored Product Pests

  • include insects such as weevils ; microorganisms such as fungi / bacteria
  • insects and microbial activity causes grain to heat
    • especially if moisture too high
    • grain becomes moldy, can be discolored if temp high
    • may require fumigation


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

Crop Condtion and moisture at harvest

  • Seed must be at proper moisture
    • or must be dried
  • higher the moisture, more likely drying will be needed


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

Post Harvest Handling

  • most cases, seed is dried during storage
  • additives can be used to prevent seed deterioration
    • include mold inhibitors
      • organic acids
    • formaldehyde
    • insecticides
  • Mold inhibitors particulary important in controlling aflatoxin incidence


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

Length of Storage

  • some loss in seed viability occurs with time
  • minimized in proper environment


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

Foreign Material

  • foriegn material in grain should be removed prior to storage
    • foreign material reduces grain quality directly 
    • may increase pest pop


How factor impacts crop quality in Storage

sanitation of storage facility

  • Damaged or infected grain and foreign material should be removed and the storage facility sanitized to reduce pest infestation 
  • pesticides can be used to prevent pest infestation


IP Varieties

  • identity Preserved Varieties have specific end use
    • or have restrictions on their end use
    • steps must be taken to ensure IP variety not mixed


Planting IP Varieties

  • seed of other varieties cannot be plant with IP variety
  • may be restrictions on how close other crops are planted to IP crop


Harvest of IP Variety

  • combine should be emptied before beginning of operation and any holding container should be empty


Delivery / storage of IP Variety

  • most IP have specific points of delivery that will accept that type and keep it separate


Consequence of not maintaining purity of IP crop

consequences are loss of income and future sales as iP contracts will not be offered to those that mess it up


How to Recognize improper harvesting procedures

  • Grain can be damaged by improper thresher adjustment, improper thresher speed, worn thresher parts
  • check all equipment and condition of crop before harvesting


Food Safety

Worker / Equipment Sanitation

  • important becuase they are potential carriers of disease organisms to food
    • can be contaminated with toxic chemicals that can be transfered to food


Water testing and irrigation testing (food Safety)

  • irrigation water could have disease
    • organisms
    • pesticides
    • toxic organic /  inorganic compounds
    • human / animal drugs


Buffer Zones in food Safety

  • used to grow crops away from contaminated areas 
  • buffer zones near water sources can be used to minimize irrigation water contamination


Food safety pesiticide use

  • limited to those pesticides that do not lead to food safety issues


Record Keeping (food safety)

  • when contaminated food found in food chain, these records can be used to identify, control and eliminate the problem