Flashcards in Cross Sectional Studies (Lecture 5) Deck (23)
Define a cross sectional study
an observational study that captures health/disease and exposure status at the same time
represents what is occurring at a point in time or time frame across a large population without regard to exposures to disease or outcome status
What is another work for a cross sectional study?
a prevalence study
Do cross sectional studies find causation?
No they seek association
To measure the entire population, say of the US, what are one of the ways that this can be achieved in a cross sectional study?
Use of a database or a survey
What are the 2 cross sectional approaches to a study?
1. Collect data on each member of the population (surveys at a city and state wide level
2. Take a sample of the population and draw inferences to the remainder (generalizable)
What are the two most common approaches to the collection of study or data information?
Questionnaires or surveys
What are the strengths of a cross sectional study?
Quicker and easier for the researcher in regards to data collection
Less expensive for the researcher
Can be analyzed like a case control or a cohort
prevalence rates can be estimated
answer research questions
What are the weaknesses of a cross sectional study?
prevalent cases may represent survivors
difficult to study diseases of low frequency
unable to generate incidence
temporal relationships are difficult to assess in regards to the cause and effect
What are the 5 examples of cross sectional surveys that were listed in class?
1. NHANES: national health and nutrition examination survey
2. NHIS: national Health Interview Survey
3. NAMCS: National ambulatory medical care survey
4. NHCS: National Hospital Care Survey
5. BRFSS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
What is the purpose of the NHANES?
To assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children
How does the NHANES collect information?
1. Interviews and physical examinations with health related and dietary questions
2. Survey sample is selected to represent the average United States population
What is the purpose of the NHIS?
It is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian, non-institutionalized population
How does the NHIS collect information?
1. Survey sample is representative of the entire population
2. data is collected through a household interview
3. core set of questions that remain the same
What is the purpose of NAMCS
Designed to meet the need for objective, reliable information about the provision and use of ambulatory medical care services in the US
What is the NAMCS based off of?
The sample of visits to non-federal, non-institutional physicians primarily engaged in patient care
What is the purpose of NHCS?
It is a combined national survey that is designed to describe the patterns of healthcare delivery in non-federal hospital based settings
What does the NHCS integrate within it's study?
Previous cross sectional studies (NHDS) (NHAMCS), Drug abuse warning network (DAWN)
What is the purpose of BRFSS
it is a state based system of telephone health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventative health practices, and heath care access primarily related to chronic disease and injury
What does NHANES stand for?
National Health and nutrition Examination Survey
What does NHIS stand for?
National Health Interview survey
What does NAMCS Stand for?
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
What does NHCS stand for
National Hospital care survey