Cross Sectional Studies (Lecture 5) Flashcards Preview

Epidemiology Exam 2 > Cross Sectional Studies (Lecture 5) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cross Sectional Studies (Lecture 5) Deck (23)
Loading flashcards...

Define a cross sectional study

an observational study that captures health/disease and exposure status at the same time

represents what is occurring at a point in time or time frame across a large population without regard to exposures to disease or outcome status


What is another work for a cross sectional study?

a prevalence study


Do cross sectional studies find causation?

No they seek association


To measure the entire population, say of the US, what are one of the ways that this can be achieved in a cross sectional study?

Use of a database or a survey


What are the 2 cross sectional approaches to a study?

1. Collect data on each member of the population (surveys at a city and state wide level
2. Take a sample of the population and draw inferences to the remainder (generalizable)


What are the two most common approaches to the collection of study or data information?

Questionnaires or surveys
Physical assessments


What are the strengths of a cross sectional study?

Quicker and easier for the researcher in regards to data collection
Less expensive for the researcher
Can be analyzed like a case control or a cohort
prevalence rates can be estimated
answer research questions


What are the weaknesses of a cross sectional study?

prevalent cases may represent survivors
difficult to study diseases of low frequency
unable to generate incidence
temporal relationships are difficult to assess in regards to the cause and effect



What are the 5 examples of cross sectional surveys that were listed in class?

1. NHANES: national health and nutrition examination survey
2. NHIS: national Health Interview Survey
3. NAMCS: National ambulatory medical care survey
4. NHCS: National Hospital Care Survey
5. BRFSS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System


What is the purpose of the NHANES?

To assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children


How does the NHANES collect information?

1. Interviews and physical examinations with health related and dietary questions
2. Survey sample is selected to represent the average United States population


What is the purpose of the NHIS?

It is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian, non-institutionalized population


How does the NHIS collect information?

1. Survey sample is representative of the entire population
2. data is collected through a household interview
3. core set of questions that remain the same


What is the purpose of NAMCS

Designed to meet the need for objective, reliable information about the provision and use of ambulatory medical care services in the US


What is the NAMCS based off of?

The sample of visits to non-federal, non-institutional physicians primarily engaged in patient care


What is the purpose of NHCS?

It is a combined national survey that is designed to describe the patterns of healthcare delivery in non-federal hospital based settings


What does the NHCS integrate within it's study?

Previous cross sectional studies (NHDS) (NHAMCS), Drug abuse warning network (DAWN)


What is the purpose of BRFSS

it is a state based system of telephone health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventative health practices, and heath care access primarily related to chronic disease and injury


What does NHANES stand for?

National Health and nutrition Examination Survey


What does NHIS stand for?

National Health Interview survey


What does NAMCS Stand for?

National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey


What does NHCS stand for

National Hospital care survey


What does BRFSS stand for?

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance system