General Methodological Concepts of Research (Lecture 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Methodological Concepts of Research (Lecture 1) Deck (35)
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Quantitative

Numbers used to represent data (pain scale)

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Qualitative

Words used to represent data (word cloud)

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Types of Quantitative Study Designs

Interventional and Observational

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Interventional Study Design

Considered experimental; investigator selects exposure; there IS researcher-forced group allocation

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Observational Study Design

Considered natural; researchers "observe" subject-elements occurring naturally or selected by individual (naturally or freely); usually not able to prove causation and there is NO researcher-forced allocation

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Research Question

An "I wonder if..." statement; helps frame study intent and can direct researcher to selecting and developing an effective study design to answer question

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Population

All individuals making up a common group from which a sample can be obtained if desired

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Sample

A subset or portion of the full, complete population; useful when studying the complete population is not feasible; random processes commonly utilized to draw sample

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Null Hypothesis (Ho)

A research perspective which states there will be no true difference between the groups being compared; most conservative and commonly utilized; researchers either reject or don't reject this perspective based on data or results

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Superiority Study

Better than the alternative or comparison group

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Noninferiority Study

At least not worse than alternative or comparison group

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Equivalency

Equal to alternative or comparison group

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Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

A research perspective which states there will be a true difference between the groups being compared

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Probability Samples

Every element in the population has a known, non-zero, probability of being included in sample

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Simple Random Sampling

Assign random numbers, then take randomly-selected numbers to get desired sample size OR assign random numbers, then sequentially-list numbers and take desired sample size from top or bottom of listed numbers

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Systematic Random Sampling

Assign random numbers, then randomly sort these random numbers, then select highest or lowest number, then systematically, by a pre-determined sampling-interval take every Nth numbers to get desired sample size

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Stratified Simple Random Sampling

Stratify sampling frame by desired characteristic, such as gender or age, then use simple random sampling to select desired sample size

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Stratified Disproportionate Random Sampling

Disproportionately utilizes stratified simple random sampling when baseline population is not at the desired proportional percentages to the referent population; stratified sample weighted to return sample population back to baseline population; useful for over-sampling

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Multi-Stage Random Sampling

Uses simple random sampling at multiple stages towards patient selection; multiple rounds of random sampling

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Cluster Multi-Stage Random Sampling

Same as multi-stage random sampling but ALL elements clustered together (at any stage) are selected for inclusion

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Non-Probability Sampling Schemes

Quasi-systematic or convenience samples; not really, completely random or fully probabilistic; decide on what fraction of population is to be sampled and how they will be sampled

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Internal Validity

"Inside" the study; assessments, measurements; objective rather than subjective assessments; scientifically accurate and reproducible

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Equipoise

Genuine confidence that an intervention may be worth while (risk vs benefit) in order to use it in humans

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Autonomy

self-rule/self-determination; participants must decide for ones self, without outside influences and have full and complete understanding of the risks and benefits

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Beneficence

To benefit, or do good for, the patient (not society)

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Justice

Equal and fair treatment regardless of patient characteristics

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Nonmaleficence

Do no harm; researchers must not withhold information, provide false information, or exhibit professional incompetence

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Belmont Report

Issued by National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1978; contains 3 guiding principles; respect for persons, beneficence, and justice

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Consent

Agreement to participate, based on being fully and completely informed, given by mentally-capable individuals of legal consenting age (adults)

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Assent

Agreement to participate, based on being fully and completely informed, given by mentally capable individuals NOT able to give legal consent (children, adolescents); consent has to be given by parent or legal guardian and actual participants must give assent