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Epidemiology Exam Week 2 > Cross-Sectional Study > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cross-Sectional Study Deck (16)
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1

Define a cross-sectional study

Observational studies that capture health/disease and exposure statuses AT THE SAME TIME

2

What is an synonym of a cross-sectional study?

A prevalence study or "snapshot"

3

When is the most appropriate time to use a cross-sectional study?

When wanting to study entire populations or subset populations.

4

Study populations from cross-sectional studies are formed by

samples are taken from populations to represent the U.S population via questionnaires or surveys of records or even from physical assessments.

5

List the strengths of cross-sectional studies

Quick and easy since data is available
Less expensive for researcher for prospective type study
Analysis is flexible to be reviewed through case-control or cohort
Useful for estimating prevalence rates
Useful for answering research questions about a myriad of exposure and disease using same data

6

List the weakness of cross-sectional studies

Prevalent cases may represent survivors
Difficult to study diseases of low frequency
Unable to generate incidence rates
Problems in determining temporal relationship of presumed cause/effect

7

What is NHANES?

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

8

How is NHANES data collected and what are they assessing?

Via interviews and physical examinations

Assess the health and nutritional status of adult and children

9

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey

10

How is NHIS data collected and what are they assessing?

Collect data on health of the civilian from non-institutionalized populations(not in hospitals)

Can minimize participation bias by adding survey Questions in home interviews

11

NAMCS

National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

12

How is NAMCS data collected and what are they assessing?

Look at data and medical records of ambulatory data

13

NHCS

National Hospital Care Survey

14

How is NHCS data collected and what are they assessing?

A combined national survey data from non-federal hospital-based settings. It multi-staged randomization for broad sampling.

15

BRFSS

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

16

How is BRFSS data collected and what are they assessing?

Via telephone or questionnaires in school for youth
Collects data on health risk behaviors, preventive health factors and health care accesses

Susceptible for responder bias due to phone