General Methodological Concepts of Research Flashcards Preview

Epidemiology Exam Week 2 > General Methodological Concepts of Research > Flashcards

Flashcards in General Methodological Concepts of Research Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the two subcategories of Quantitative research design? Explain the differences.

Interventional: Researcher intervenes to force participants in various groups

Observational: Researcher does not intervene or force participants in groups. More common for ethics studies. More Natural. Uses Phases.

2

What are common study designs for observational studies?

Cross-Sectional
Case-Control
Cohort

3

Every study design as its own ___ and ___

Strengths
Weaknesses

4

What are the three statistical perspectives for Null Hypothesis?

Superiority
Non-inferiority
Equivalency

5

What is the appropriate null hypothesis from the superiority perspective?

My drug will not be superior to placebo

6

What is the appropriate null hypothesis from the non-inferiority perspective?

My drug is worse than placebo

7

What is the appropriate null hypothesis from the equivalence perspective?

My drug is not equal to placebo.`

8

Simple Random Sampling

Assign random numbers and select in order/non-order

9

Systematic Random Sampling

Assign random numbers, randomly sort them then select “middle 50”, “top 10” or “bottom 10”

10

Stratified Simple Random Sampling

Separate by desired characteristics for equableness in each group and then use simple randomizing for the appropriate sample size. Stratify for gender for example.

11

Stratified Disproportionate Random Sampling

Sampling of certain groups are not equal or desirable to other groups so we decide to add more weight to the under-represented OR over sample in that specific category

12

Multi-Stage Random Sampling

Using simple random sampling at different stages (country then state then county)

13

Cluster Multi Stage Random Sampling

Just like multi-stage but various regions, hospital are cluster in one region

14

What is the one non-probability sampling scheme?

Quasi-Systematic or Convenience Sampling

15

Quasi-Systematic or Convenience Sampling

Not Random, “first 10”

16

What is Equipoise?

Genuine confidence that an intervention may be worthwhile(risk vs. benefit) in order to use it in humans

17

What are the 4 principles of bioethics?

Autonomy
Justice
Beneficience
Nonmaleficence

18

Belmont Report

1978, issued by National Commission for protection of human subjects of biomedical and behavioral research

19

3 guidelines of Belmont Report

Respect for persons
Beneficence
Justice

20

Consent vs. Assent

Over 18 versus under 18
"agreement to participate, based on being fully and completely informed."

21

IRB or "___" have an intention to ____ (before/after study)

1. Institutional Review Board or
2. Ethics Board
3. Protect human subjects
4. Before

22

OHRP has a role to _____

Office of Human Research Protections

Administers and enforces the regulations

23

What are the three levels of IRB review?

Full Board
Expedited
Exempt

24

Who is the DSMB? When do they interfere?

Data Safety and Monitoring Board, during the study

25

Type I Error

False-Positive

Rejecting null hypothesis when should not have

26

Type II Error

False Negative

Not rejecting Null Hypothesis when should have