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Flashcards in CS 4 Deck (28):

Are the four criteria for insomnia?

Trouble initiating and maintaining sleep. Adequate opportunity for sleep. Daytime functioning distracted. No other sleep disorder.


His normal sleep latency? Sleep latency in insomnia patients?

20-30; >30


What is short-term and chronic insomnia?

Less than 3 months, greater than 3 months


What is initial insomnia? What are the classical cause?

Problems with initiation asleep. Think of poor sleep hygiene, anxiety, a stimulus.


What is terminal insomnia? What are the classical closet?

Maintain sleep Or waking up too early. Alcohol or depression


Lack of sleep without daytime drowsiness is indicative of what?

Bipolar disorder


Insomnia must be distinguished between what two disorders?

Nonrestorative sleep (OSA) or altered sleep schedule (cAcadian rhythm disorder)


What should be discussed in the closing and counter for insomnia patients?

Discuss how insomnia can affect well-being social interactions and functional status. Should counsel patients on keeping a sleep diary


What should sleep diary consist of?

What time you go to sleep, how long it takes you to fall asleep, number/duration of awakenings, estimated sleep time, daytime symptoms, exercise and dietary habits


What are the diagnostic studies that can be done for insomnia patients?

Fasting glucose and HbA1c.
Liver function panel
Sleep study/polysomnography
Urine toxicology


What are the clinical features for menopause?

Remember chaos☝🏾
Cognitive decline, irritability, hot flashes, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea, vaginal atrophy, sleep disturbances, Depression, decreased libido


What is menopause?

Permanent cessation of menses, clinically diagnosed at 45 for duration of 12 months. Average age being 51


What is perimenopause or menopause transition? What is considered premature?

Irregular menstrual bleeding for seven years before menopause. 28+-7days; less than 40 yo


What are the common reasons a menopausal woman comes office?

Vasomotor (hot flashes) hypo estrogenic vaginal dryness. Fertility problems and Osteoporosis


What disorders may mimic menopause, what are the differential diagnosis? What are the associated symptoms?

Thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism, palpitations tremor heat intolerance Weight loss hyperreflexia. Pituitary disorders: menstrual disturbances, galactorrhea, mass defects (headache visual field defects). Pregnancy especially if younger than45


What is the follow up question for hot flashes? Irregular periods?

How often do they occur? When did the irregular periods start occurring?


What question should be asked to a menopausal patient for past medical history?

And we had a hysterectomy or any other surgeries?
Any problems with your ovaries or uterus including cancers?


If a patient is having hot flashes what should be noted?

If the patient has any contraindications for hormone therapy such as smoking, History of breast cancer


When should FSH be ordered in menopausal patients?

Patients with significant symptoms less than 45 or older patients with uncertain diagnosis (hysterectomy)


What diagnostic test should be ran for menopause patients?

Estradiol and progesterone and FSH
Serum HCG and urine HCG
Genital and pelvic examination


What are the differential diagnosis for a patient with carpal tunnel syndrome?

Fractured, sprained, ligament avulsion.
Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar neuropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, de quervain tenosynovitis


What are the physical test For carpal tunnel syndrome?

Phalen test and tinel sign


Night sweats can arise from what disorders?

Infection, malignancy, Metabolic derangement


What causes hot flashes? What causes flushing?

Hot flashes can because by menopause or male or female hypergonadism. Flushing amuse by medication such as Niacin or carcinoid syndrome


What are the differential for night sweats?

Infection, malignancy, alcohol or Opioid withdrawal,
Hypoglycemia, medications such as antidepressants, Systemic Inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, gastroesophageal reflux


What are the diagnostic test necessary for patients with Night Sweats?

CBC, HIV screen, PPD, CXR, ESR, TSH, glucose and electrolytes


What the causes for Hemoptysis?

Bronchitis, lung cancer, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, lung abscess, bacteria pneumonia, Asperogillosis, mitral valve stenosis/Acute pulmonary edema, Granulomatous with polyangitis, Goodpastures, pulmonary embolism, AV malformation, trauma, cocaine (inhalation)


What are the common features besides Hemoptysis for TB? Lung abscess?

Cough, weight lost, low grade fever; systemic sx and purulent.