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Flashcards in Cs1 Deck (25):
1

Function of nucleus

Contains the genetic material

2

Function of smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

Synthesis/transport of lipids
Synthesis/transport if steroids(hormones)
Syntheis/transport of carbohydrates

3

Function of lysosome

Contains hydrolysing enzymes/
Break down of waste material

4

Function of ribosome

Protein synthesis

5

Endosymbiotic theory

Mitochondria and chloroplasts found in eukaryotic cells represent formerly free-living bacteria that were absorbed into a larger cell

6

Endosymbiotic theory

Mitochondria and chloroplasts found in eukaryotic cells represent formerly free-living bacteria that were absorbed into a larger cell

7

Evidence for endosymbiotic theory

Mitochondria contain ribosomes that are smaller than those found in cell cytoplasm

Mitochondria are similar sixmze to bacteria

Chloroplasts have their own circular DNA

8

Name 2 features if plant cells that are not features of animal cells

Cell wall
Chloroplast
+
Starch grains
Large permanent vacuole
Tonoplast
Plasmodesmata

9

One structure present in animal cells that is not present in plant cells

Centriole/glycogen granule

10

Describe role of cytoskeleton

1.whole cell support/stability

2.movement of cilia/flagella/undulipodia

3.changing shape of cell/cytokinesis/endocytosis/exocytisis/phagocytosis

4.movement of vesicle

5.movement if chromosomes

11

Pancreas is organ that secretes protease enzymes
Outline how the organelles in pancreatic cells work together to produce and release these protein molecules from the cell

1.nucleus contains gene for protein/site for transcription
2. Ribosomes/RER site of protein synthesis/translation
3.vesicles for transport if proteins
4.golgi apparatus processes/modifies/reoackages proteins
5.vesicles fuse to plasma membranes

12

Function of mitochondia

Aerobic respiration/producing ATP

13

Student suggested that details of mitochondua could be seen clearly with a very goof light microscope.
Explain why student is wrong

Mitochondrion too small
Resolution of light microscope not high enough (0.2 micrometres/200nm)
Wavelength of light too long

14

Advantages of staining specimens to be viewed under a microsope

Makes visible/easier to see/see more detail
Provides/increases contrast
Identify/ recognise organelles
Identify/recognise different compounds

15

Plant cells

Have:
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Cellulose cell wall
Ribosomes

Do not have:
Centrioles

16

Animal cells

Have:
Mitochondria
Centrioles
Ribosomes

Do not have:
Chloroplasts
Cellulose cell wall

17

Bacterial cells

Have:
Ribosomes

Do not have:
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Cellulose cell walls
Centrioles

18

Example of extracellular protein

Glycoprotein

19

1 stage during secretion of protein that requires energy

Transport vesicles to plasma membranes
Fusing vesicle to plasma membranes/exocytosis

20

Function of Golgi apparatus

1.receives proteins from RER/ribosomes
2.modify/process proteins or make glycoproteins
3.repackage into vesicles
4.make lysosomes
5.replenishes plasma membrane
6.lipid synthesis

21

2 features which wpuld not be present in a prokaryotic cell

Nucleus
Golgi apparatus
Vesicles
RER/SER
mitochondria

22

One feature that would be present in the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell that is not found in a eukaryotic cell

Naked DNA
Plasmid
Smaller ribosomes

23

Student
Sample of blood plus distilled water on slide under microscope
Rbc burst when viewed at high power

Similar procedure using plant epudermus
Plant cells did not burst
Why?

1.cell cytoplasm has a clower water potential than distilled water
2.water moves into cell, down water potential gradient
3.water enters cell by osmosis
4.plasma membrane of blood cell us weak so bursts/cannot withstand pressure/haemolyses
5.plant cell wall us stong/provides strength so does not bust/withstands pressure
6.plant cell becomes turgid/turgidity increases which reduces water uptake

24

Suggest moification to procedure to observe rbc without them bursting

Use a salt/sugar solution OR add solute to water
Use a solution with the same/similar/lower water potential than blood cell

25

State the lrocess by which root epidermal cells absorb cells absorb minerals from soil and describe how these cells are specilised to achieve absorption

1.active transport
2.cells have extensions
3.thin cell wall
4.large surface area
5.many more mitochondria
6.many carrier proteins in cell surface membrane