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Flashcards in CSA 2 Exam Deck (25)
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1

General Tenderness

Caused by I's & T's

  • inflammation 
  • infection
  • tumor
  • trauma

 

2

Tenderpoints

a specific point which exhibits acute tenderness when probed

 

Looking for changes in 

  • fascia 
  • muscle tendrils
  • CT
  • nerve fibers
  • changes in vascular elements

 

3

Tender points are...

a sign of somatic dysfunction

we do not treat tender points 

we treat somatic dysfunction

4

Treatment of Somatic Dysfunction

diagnosed by tender points

Treat

  • most tender one 
  • if more than one, treat most central one
  • treat most significant first 

 

5

what initiates somatic dysfunction?

muscle spindle reflex

nociceptors

nocifensive reflexes

6

why and how is somatic dysfunction maintained?

guarding mechanism to protect from further damage

 

at spinal cord level or at higher CNS levels

7

Who described strain/counterstain?

Lawrence Jones DO

8

What is counterstrain?

a passive positional OMT that places a segment in a position of comfort

 

an indirect treatment to restore/reset nociceptive and proprioceptive activity

9

When was counterstrain described?

1955 by Lawrence Jones

 

published in 1964 in JAOA as "Spontaneous Release by Positioning"

10

What is the main diagnostic criteria for counterstrain?

Tenderness

11

What is the minimum resolution we want?

70%

12

Why do we return the patient back to neutral slowly?

to prevent re-inciting the nociceptive reflex

13

What happens during the 90 secs treat?

holding the muscle in a shortened position decreases the proprioceptive and mechanoreceptive input

 

allows CNS to reset normal resting length and tension parameters

14

Advantages of Counterstrain

non-traumatic

easy, safe, effective

15

Disadvantages

takes time

treatment reactions lasting up to 24-36 hours

 

 

16

What is strain?

severe over-stretching of a muscle

 

stretched muscle has increased freq of impulse 

 

17

What are tensegrity systems stabilized by?

Tensegrity systems are stabilized by

continous tension (soft tissue) with discontinuous compression (bone)

18

Mechanotransduction

the process of mechanical signals being converted into biochemical changes

19

Prestressed tensegrity structures are...

a series of discontinuous compression-resistant elements held w.i. a web of continuous tension elements

20

Geodesic tensegrity structures are...

 

How do they differ from prestressed tensegrity structures? 

tensegrity structures stabilized through force triangulation

 

individual elements are capable of alternating btw generating tension or resisting compression

21

Tenets of tensegrity structures

  • intrinsically self-stabilizing 
  • flexible while minimizing damage
  • return to original shape (elastic)
  • efficient, lightweight, + strong

22

Who researched biotensegrity at the cellular level?

Ingber

23

Who researched tensegrity? 

Fuller

24

In vitro vs in vivo study

in vitro 

  • microfilaments = bent 
  • microtubules = straight 

in vivo

  • microfilaments = straight 
  • microtubules = bent 

25

Outcomes of mechanotransduction are...

  • modifications in cell physiology 
    • activate cAMP production 
  • modifications in gene expression
    • activation through deformation of microfilaments +  microtubules
      • chromatin remodeling + nuclear pore open/closing
  • modifications in intracellular bchm 
    • activation of Ca ion channels (TRPV4)
      • alters focal adhesion