Flashcards in CTL Deck (35):
Names the steps of mitosis, in order
What are the 6 types of epithelia?
Simple, Simple Cubodial, Simple Columnar, Stratified (squamous), Pseudostratified (columnar), transitional
What are the functions and location of simple squamous epithelia?
Functions: diffusion and filtration
Present in: kidneys, blood vessels, serosae, lining of heart
What are the functions and location of simple columnar epithelia?
Functions: absorption and secretion
Present in: Digestive tract and gallbladder, urine tubes and some regions of the uterus
What are the functions and location of simple cuboidal epithelia?
Functions: secretion and absorption
Present in: kidneys, ducts and secretory of small glands, and ovary surface
What are the functions and location of stratified squamous epithelia?
Present in: external part of the skins epidermis, lining of oesophagus, mouth and vagina
What are the functions and location of pseudostratified columnar epithelia?
Functions: secretion and propulsion of mucus
Present in: male sperm carrying ducts and trachea
the powerhouse of the cell
What does the Rough ER do?
Synthesizes proteins for secretion
Smooth ER is?
Site of lipid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Detoxifies both drugs and alcohol
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
modifies new proteins for lysosomes, secretion and plasma membrane
What does the lysosomes do?
Digest things that enter cell by endocytosis. Digests remains after cell death. Remove and recycle bad organelles and cell components
structural support to cell. Cell division. assists motility and cytosol streaming
- two classes: genetic and acquried
sequence of cellular, biochemical and molecular events that occur after exposure of cells or tissues to an injurious agent
Morphological changes are?
structural alterations in cells or tissues that are either characteristic of a disease or diagnostic of aetiologic process
Functional abnormalities are?
End results of genetic, biochemical and structural changes in cells and tissues.
Lead to clinical manifestations
Clinical manifestations are?
the functional consequence of functional abnormality changes
How do cells respond to stress?
- normally maintain homeostasis
- cell injury
however injury can be reversible, but in some cases irreversible
What are the 2 types of irreversible cell injury?
necrosis and apoptosis
What are the types of cellular adaptions?
Physiological (hormones and endogenous chemical mediators) and pathological (structure and function)
increase of cell size = increase of organ size
- occurs when cells are incapable of dividing
- occurs due to increased production of cellular proteins
- increase in number of cells
- adaptive response in cells capable of replication
- physiological: occurs when a portion of the tissue is removed
-Pathological: caused by excessive hormonal or growth factor stimulation
- decrease in cell size = decrease in organ size
- causes include: aging, decreased work load, loss of innervation, decreased blood supply, inadequate nutrition and loss of endocrine stimulation
- Reversible change in which one cell type is replaced by another
- sensitive cells are replaced with better ones that can withstand stress
What are the 2 intrinsic systems that make up the immune system?
Innate: first and second line of defense (external body and mucus)
Adaptive: third line of defense (attacks foreign substances)
What are the physical and chemical defenses used by the skin and mucous membranes?
Physical: skin, mucous, tears, saliva, urine flow, vomiting
Chemical: sebum, lysozyme, gastric juice
What are the types of internal defenses?
antimicrobial proteins, cells, inflammation and fever
What are the 2 types of adaptive immunity?
cellular (T cells) and humoral (B cells)
What does the Sodium Potassium pump do?
maintains the Na and K concentration gradietns
What is a passive channel?
a membrane ion channel that is always open
what is a chemically gated channel?
a channel opened by binding of specific neurotransmitter
What is a voltage gated channel?
Opens and closes in response to MP
What is a mechanically gated channel?
Opens and closes in response to physical deformation of receptors