Flashcards in Cultural Anthropology Deck (22)
The philosophical view that reality consists of two equal and irreducible forces. Example- mind and matter, soul and body, or spirit and flesh.
The philosophical view (dating back as far as Plato in western thought) that ideas- or the mind that produces such ideas- constitute the essence of human nature. That the true nature of human beings is spiritual, not material; the body is a material impediment that frustrates the full development of the mind or spirit.
The philosophical view that the activities of our physical bodies in the material world constitute the essence of human nature.
The philosophical view that one simple force (or a few simple forces) causes (or determines) complex events.
An unchanging core of features that is unique to the things of th same kind (whether they are chairs, cows, ideas, or people) and makes them what they are.
A perspective on the human condition that assumes that the mind and body, individual and society, and individual and environment interpenetrate and even define one another.
The relationship between biological processes and symbolic cultural processes in which each makes up an important part of the environment to which the other must adapt.
The integrated study of human nature, human society, and human history.
A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in a wide a range of human societies before generalizing about human nature, human society, or human history.
Define Biological evolution
Evolution of the resources for human development provided by our genres and other elements that make up our physical bodies.
Define Cultural evolution
Evolution of the beliefs and behaviours we incorporate into human development through the experiences of teachings and learning.
A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature, human society, or human history in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time.
Define biological (or physical) anthropology
The speciality of anthropology that looks at humans as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics make us different from and/or similar to other living things.
Social groupings that allegedly reflected biological differences.
The systematic oppression of members of one or more socially defined 'races' by members of another socially defined 'race' that is justified within the ruling society by the rulers' faulty belief in their own biological superiority
The study of non-human primates, closest living relatives of human beings.
The study of the fossilized remains of human beings' earliest ancestors.
The speciality of anthropology interested in what we can learn from material remains left behind by earlier human societies.
The system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experiences of world and one another.
Define linguistic anthropology
The speciality of anthropology concerned with the study of human languages.
Define Cultural anthropology
The speciality of anthropology that studies how variation in beliefs and behaviours is shaped by culture and learned by different members of human groups.