Flashcards in Cultural Anthropology Final Deck (50)
Types of political systems:
Elman Service (1962)
- bands (small kin-based groups among foragers)
- tribes (kin groups based on common descent)
- chiefdoms (based on kinship, descent, marriage, age...)
- state (based on formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification)
Characteristics of bands and tribes:
- diversity in time and space
- tendency to stereotype foragers
- foraging bands formed seasonally when nuclear families got together
- lacking formal law in the sense of a legal code with trial and enforcement
- village head - limited power
What is an age set?
- all men born within a certain time span
Types of Age Grades (mostly in Africa)
- Initiated youths
- mature men (ruling class)
- elders (ritual responsibilities)
Age sets (mostly in North America)
- people still in the same set who typically experience strong allegiance toward each other
Characteristics of a chiefdom:
- idealized political type;; in reality - continuous
- permanent political regulation of the territory
- chief- office - permanent position - refilled
- regulation of distribution and consumption -
Characteristics of states:
- large and populous
- containing systems, sub-systems with specialized functions (population control, judiciary, enforcement, fiscal, etc. )
What is hegemony?
The concept was developed by Antonio Gramsci (1971) for a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers' values and accepting the "naturalness" of domination. All hegemonic ideologies offer explanations about why the existing order is in everyone's interest.
What are "weapons of the weak"?
They are what James Scott (1985) calls small-scale acts of resistance against oppression (as opposed to active protests).
List generally male activities:
List generally female activities
Work at home vs. more valued work outside
Gender among agriculturalists:
- women were cut off from production
- closer to home to take care for children
- nuclear families more common
- gender stratification associated with plow cultivation
Characteristics of a patriarchy:
-- a political system ruled by men
- women have an inferior position
- greater tendency toward warfare and intervillage raids
- domestic violence worldwide
Family related terms:
- family of orientation (nuclear family within one is born and grows up)
- family of procreation (nuclear family established when one marries and has children)
- neolocality (couple establishes new residence
either matrilineal or patrilineal descent
What is a clan?
- a unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
What is a lineage?
- a unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent
What is an ambilineal descent rule?
- a flexible descent rule, neither patrilineal, nor matrilineal
What is kinship calculation?
- how people in a particular society reckon kin relations
What is ego?
- Position from which one views an egocentric genealogy
What is bilateral kinship calculation?
Kin ties calculated equally through men and women
What is a genitor?
A child's biological father
What is a pater?
One's socially recognized father, not necessarily the genitor
Marriage within one's social group versus marriage outside it:
endogamy vs. exogamy
What is a bridewealth?
Marital gift by husband's group to wife's group.
What is a progeny price?
A marital gift by husband's group to wife's group; legitimizes their children.
What is a dowry?
Substantial gifts to husband's family from wife's group.
What is a sororate?
A marriage system wherein a widower marries the sister of his deceased wife.