Flashcards in CVS Overview Deck (55)
What is the circulatory system?
Organ system transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, etc
What is the cardiovascular system?
Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), blood, lymphatic system
What are the 2 "loops" of circulation?
1. Pulmonary circulation
2. Systemic circulation
Describe the pulmonary circulation
- Oxygen depleted blood
- Passes from heart to lungs
- Returns oxygenated blood to heart
Describe the systemic circulation
- Oxygen rich blood
- Passes from heart to rest of body
- Returns deoxygenated blood to heart
What are the boundaries of the superior mediastinum?
T1 and sternal angle (rib number 2)
Which part of the body is used as a reference for CPR?
What is the pericardium?
Outermost fibrous layer protecting the heart - consists of 2 layers (visceral and parietal layers)
The pericardium provides an anchor - holds everything in place
What is between the visceral and parietal pericardium?
What is the purpose of serous fluid between the viscera land parietal pericardium layerS?
Minimises friction each time the heart beats
What is myocardium?
Heart muscle - forms the bulk of the heart
What is a myocardial infarction?
A heart attack
What does the superior vena cava drain?
Everything above the level of the heart
What does the inferior vena cava drain?
Everything below the level of the heart
Why does the pulmonary trunk divide in two?
One artery for left lung, one artery for right lung
Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood?
Where is the apex of the heart located?
At the bottom of the heart
Where does the umbilical vein go?
Goes into the baby's heart from the mother's placenta
Carries oxygenated blood
What is the function of the ductus venousus in foetal circulation?
Allows oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to bypass the liver
Oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein is shunted directly to the inferior vena cava
What is the name of the hole between the atria in developing babies?
What is the purpose of the foramen ovale?
Shunts oxygenated blood from right to left atria
Allows oxygenated blood coming from the umbilical vein via the inferior vena cava to bypass the pulmonary circulation
Lungs don't work until ~35 weeks
What happens to the foramen ovale when a baby is born?
Once the umbilical cord is cut, the foramen ovale shuts instantly.
What is the ductus arteriosus?
Allows blood from right ventricle to bypass the lungs
Allows blood to pass straight from pulmonary trunk to the aorta
What is the purpose of the 3 shunts in foetal circulation?
Ductus venous: shunts blood away from liver
Ductus artists and foramen ovale: allows blood to bypass the lungs (non-functioning)
What happens if coronary arteries are blocked?
Which arteries are termed 'end arteries' to the heart?
What is the foramen ovals called when it shuts?
What drains the heart?
Orifice of coronary sinus
What do musculi pectinati do?
Increase the flow of blood/help to propel blood