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BAMS: Cardiovascular System > CVS Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in CVS Overview Deck (55)
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1

What is the circulatory system?

Organ system transporting oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, etc

2

What is the cardiovascular system?

Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries), blood, lymphatic system

3

What are the 2 "loops" of circulation?

1. Pulmonary circulation
2. Systemic circulation

4

Describe the pulmonary circulation

- Oxygen depleted blood
- Passes from heart to lungs
- Returns oxygenated blood to heart

5

Describe the systemic circulation

- Oxygen rich blood
- Passes from heart to rest of body
- Returns deoxygenated blood to heart

6

What are the boundaries of the superior mediastinum?

T1 and sternal angle (rib number 2)

7

Which part of the body is used as a reference for CPR?

Middle mediastinum

8

What is the pericardium?

Outermost fibrous layer protecting the heart - consists of 2 layers (visceral and parietal layers)
The pericardium provides an anchor - holds everything in place

9

What is between the visceral and parietal pericardium?

Serous fluid

10

What is the purpose of serous fluid between the viscera land parietal pericardium layerS?

Minimises friction each time the heart beats

11

What is myocardium?

Heart muscle - forms the bulk of the heart

12

What is a myocardial infarction?

A heart attack

13

What does the superior vena cava drain?

Everything above the level of the heart

14

What does the inferior vena cava drain?

Everything below the level of the heart

15

Why does the pulmonary trunk divide in two?

One artery for left lung, one artery for right lung

16

Which arteries carry deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary arteries

17

Where is the apex of the heart located?

At the bottom of the heart

18

Where does the umbilical vein go?

Goes into the baby's heart from the mother's placenta
Carries oxygenated blood

19

What is the function of the ductus venousus in foetal circulation?

Allows oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to bypass the liver
Oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein is shunted directly to the inferior vena cava

20

What is the name of the hole between the atria in developing babies?

Foramen ovale

21

What is the purpose of the foramen ovale?

Shunts oxygenated blood from right to left atria
Allows oxygenated blood coming from the umbilical vein via the inferior vena cava to bypass the pulmonary circulation
Lungs don't work until ~35 weeks

22

What happens to the foramen ovale when a baby is born?

Once the umbilical cord is cut, the foramen ovale shuts instantly.

23

What is the ductus arteriosus?

Allows blood from right ventricle to bypass the lungs
Allows blood to pass straight from pulmonary trunk to the aorta

24

What is the purpose of the 3 shunts in foetal circulation?

Ductus venous: shunts blood away from liver
Ductus artists and foramen ovale: allows blood to bypass the lungs (non-functioning)

25

What happens if coronary arteries are blocked?

Heart attack

26

Which arteries are termed 'end arteries' to the heart?

Coronary arteries

27

What is the foramen ovals called when it shuts?

Fossa ovalis

28

What drains the heart?

Orifice of coronary sinus

29

What do musculi pectinati do?

Cause turbulence
Increase the flow of blood/help to propel blood

30

What are chordae tendinae?

Heart strings - tough, tendinous strands attached to papillary muscles