Explain what constitutes a profession. Basic requirements?
A vocation or occupation characterized by special knowledge and skills applied and dedicated to the improvement of society.
Basic requirements: Ethical Behavior Preparation, Education Continued development, Dedication to public service above personal achievement
Describe the three characteristics of a profession according to Samuel P. Huntington.
Expertise, Responsibility, Corporateness
Differentiate between an institution and an occupation
An institution is legitimated in terms of value and norms, that is, a purpose transcending individual self-interest in favor of a presumed higher good.
An occupation is legitimated in terms of the marketplace. Supply and demand, rather than normative considerations, is paramount.
Explain why the United States has its officers take an oath to support and defend the Constitution.
The officer’s clients are the people of the nation. Because the United States can no longer rely on the security of a force of part-time volunteers, the American people have placed their trust in the professional judgment of military officers. Officers swear to defend the Constitution, national values, and the American way of life. They advise their civil authorities and fight when necessary. According to Matthews, altruism is nowhere stronger than in the military, “where the incentive of a day’s hard work and the chance to be of use stand in stark contrast to the opportunities for enrichment offered by some of the other professions.”
Explain the country’s expectations of its officers.
Patriotism, Honor, Integrity, Loyalty to service above all else, Competence, Self-sacrifice
Differentiate among the Air Force Core Values.
Integrity is the willingness to do what is right, even when no one is looking - adherence to a strong moral code and consistency in one’s actions and values
Service before self - willingness to set aside one‘s needs and to make personal sacrifices
Excellence in all we do - commitment to high standards and an understanding that each Airman has been entrusted with our nation‘s security
Identify the types of pay
Basic Pay. The largest component of your paycheck is basic pay, which varies according to your grade and years of service. (taxable income)
Special Pay. Only individuals who use certain specialized skills, or who are assigned in specified locations, receive special pay. (non-taxable)
Incentive Pay. Individuals required to perform hazardous duties receive incentive pay. While there are other incentive pays available, the most common types include. aviation career incentive pay (ACIP) and hazardous duty incentive pay (HDIP).
Recognize the different types of allowances.
Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH): The Air Force provides you with living quarters, or a basic allowance to find off base housing. If you live in government quarters (family housing), you don’t receive BAH
Basic Allowance for Subsistence (BAS): This allowance is a fixed monthly rate and is the same for all officers.
Uniform and Equipment Allowance: All officers commissioned in the regular or reserve components are authorized an initial clothing allowance upon initial entry on active duty for a period of more than 90 days
Permanent Change of Station (PCS) Allowance: When a military member permanently moves from one duty location to the next, temporarily moves to participate in an instruction course for more than 20 weeks, or temporarily moves for temporary duty (TDY) for more than 179 days,
Temporary Duty (TDY) Allowance: When a military member’s duty requires him or her to be away from his or her permanent duty station from 1 to 179 days, the Air Force characterizes that move as a TDY and funds only his or her (without dependents) move with specific compensation.
Family Separation Allowance (FSA): This type of allowance is paid to officers and enlisted members for added housing expenses caused by involuntary separation from your dependents.
FSA I compensates you for the extra cost of maintaining quarters in two places and is payable at the single BAH rate for your grade. It’s paid to the military member when stationed outside the Continental United States (CONUS), serving an unaccompanied overseas tour, and the member is living off base.
Family Separation Allowance II: This allowance helps meet expenses such as increased childcare during the military member’s absence. You’ll receive this allowance if you have eligible dependents and are forcibly separated from your family because of a PCS or TDY (of more than 30 consecutive days)
Dislocation Allowance (DLA): A dislocation allowance is also provided to partially reimburse a member for expenses associated with relocating their household, including movement or shipment of a mobile home.
Station Allowances: Finally, there are four allowances collectively known as station allowances, designed to defray the higher expenses of living overseas.
Temporary Lodging Allowance (TLA) and Expense (TLE): A member departing PCS from or arriving PCS at an overseas location may receive a TLA or at a CONUS location may receive a TLE to help defray the cost of temporary lodging required as part of a move between CONUS and OCONUS.
Overseas Housing Allowance (OHA): A member on duty outside the United States may receive a housing allowance consisting of the difference between BAH and the applicable housing cost (including utilities and occupancy expenses) in that area.
Cost-of-Living Allowance (COLA): This allowance is authorized to defray the average excess costs experienced by members in certain high-cost areas (including CONUS and OCONUS), where the average costs of living exceed a certain level above the national average.
Identify the different types of leave a military member can take.
Ordinary Leave: The most common form of leave is a leave of absence granted on the request of a service member for a number of days not to exceed the leave the member has accrued or will accrue during the current fiscal year
Convalescent Leave: Also known as sick leave, this is non-chargeable leave used for the purpose of medical care when your absence is part of a treatment prescribed by a physician or dentist for recuperation and convalescence and when approved by your commander.
Emergency Leave: Emergency leave may be granted when an individual can give evidence that an emergency exists and that granting leave may contribute to alleviation of the emergency. It won’t be 222 Pay, Allowances, and Leave 223 prejudicial to granting of future leave, but it’s charged against present or future accrued leave
Delay En Route: is leave granted in excess of authorized travel time during movements under orders. A delay en route, which must be stated on official orders, may be accrued leave or advance leave.
State how leave is accrued and used.
Leave: The leave section informs the service member of the number of leave days forwarded from the previous fiscal year, the number of days earned and used in the current fiscal year, the current leave balance, number of leave days the member will earn prior to their ETS, leave lost during the previous fiscal year, leave sold since July 14, 1976, (max 60 days), and the number of days’ leave the member is subject to lose if not used by 30 September.
State what the principles of war provide to Airmen
They serve as valuable guides to evaluate potential courses of action. The principles are independent, but tightly fused in application. No one principle should be considered without due consideration of the others. These principles are not all inclusive; the art of developing airpower strategies depends upon the Airman’s ability to view these principles from a three-dimensional perspective and integrate their application accordingly. The principles of war, combined with the additional tenets of airpower discussed elsewhere, provide the basis for a sound and enduring doctrine for the air, space, and cyberspace forces of America’s joint force.
Name the principles of war?
Unity of command, objective, offensive, mass, manuever, economy of force, security, surprise, simplicity.
Define these principles of war: Unity of command, objective, offensive, mass, manuever, economy of force, security, surprise, simplicity.
“Unity of Command” Unity of command ensures concentration of effort for every objective under one responsible commander. This principle emphasizes that all efforts should be directed and coordinated toward a common objective.Coordination may be achieved by cooperation; it is, however, best achieved by vesting a single commander with the authority and the capability to direct all force employment in pursuit of a common objective
“Objective” The principle of objective is to direct military operations toward a defined and attainable objective that contributes to strategic, operational, and tactical aims. In a broad sense, this principle holds that political and military goals should be complementary and clearly articulated
“Offensive” The purpose of an offensive action is to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. The offensive aim is to act rather than react and to dictate the time, place, purpose, scope, intensity, and pace of operations. The initiative should be seized as soon as possible. The principle of the offensive holds that offensive action, or initiative, provides the means for joint forces to dictate operations. Once seized, the initiative should be retained and fully exploited.
“Mass” The purpose of mass is to concentrate the effects of combat power at the most advantageous place and time to achieve decisive results. Concentration of military power is a fundamental consideration in all military operations. At the operational level of war, this principle suggests that superior, concentrated combat power is used to achieve decisive results.
“Manuever” Maneuver places the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power in a multidimensional combat space. The principle of maneuver is not limited to simple weapons delivery. Maneuver may involve the strategic positioning of capabilities that bring potential airpower to bear within striking distance of potential or actual adversaries.
“Economy of Force” Economy of force is the judicious employment and distribution of forces. Its purpose is to allocate minimum essential resources to secondary efforts. This principle calls for the rational use of force by selecting the best mix of air, space, and cyberspace capabilities. Economy of force may require a commander to establish a balance in the application of airpower between attacking, defending, delaying, or conducting other operations such as information operations, depending on the importance of the area or the priority of the objective or objectives.
“Security” The purpose of security is to never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage. Friendly forces and their operations should be protected from enemy action that could provide the enemy with unexpected advantage. The lethal consequences of enemy attack make the security of friendly forces a paramount concern. From an Airman’s perspective, security also may be obtained by staying beyond the enemy’s reach, physically and virtually.
“Surprise” Surprise leverages the principle of security by attacking the enemy at a time, place, or in a manner for which they are not prepared. The speed and range of air, space, and cyberspace capabilities, coupled with their flexibility and versatility, allow air forces to achieve surprise more readily than other forces.Surprise is one of airpower’s strongest advantages.
“Simplicity” Simplicity calls for avoiding unnecessary complexity in organizing, preparing, planning, and conducting military operations. Simplicity ensures that guidance, plans, and orders are as simple and direct as the objective allows.
List the tenents of air power (7)
“Centralized Control and Decentralized Execution” Because of airpower’s unique potential to directly affect the strategic and operational levels of war, it should be controlled by a single Airman who maintains the broad, strategic perspective necessary to balance and prioritize the use of a powerful, highly desired yet limited force. A single air component commander, focused on the broader aspects of an operation, can best balance or mediate urgent demands for tactical support against longer-term strategic and operational requirements.Centralized control empowers the air component commander to respond to changes in the operational environment and take advantage of fleeting opportunities, and embodies the tenet of flexibility and versatility. However, it should not become a recipe for micromanagement, stifling the initiative subordinates need to deal with combat’s inevitable uncertainties. Decentralized execution is defined as the “delegation of authority to designated lower-level commanders” As long as a subordinate’s decision supports the superior commander’s intent and meets campaign objectives, subordinates should be allowed to take the initiative during execution.
“Flexibility and Versatility” Flexibility allows airpower to exploit mass and maneuver simultaneously. Flexibility allows airpower to shift from one campaign objective to another, quickly and decisively. Versatility is the ability to employ airpower effectively at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war and provide a wide variety of tasks in concert with other joint force elements
“Synergistic Effects” The proper application of a coordinated force across multiple domains can produce effects that exceed the contributions of forces employed individually.
“Persistence” Air, space, and cyberspace operations may be conducted continuously against a broad spectrum of targets. Airpower’s exceptional speed and range allow its forces to visit and revisit wide ranges of targets nearly at will. Airpower does not have to occupy terrain or remain constantly in proximity to areas of operation to bring force upon targets. Space forces in particular hold the ultimate high ground, and as space systems continue to advance and proliferate, they offer the potential for persistent overhead access; unmanned aircraft systems offer similar possibilities from the atmosphere.
“Concentration” One of the most constant and important trends throughout military history has been the effort to concentrate overwhelming power at the decisive time and place. The principles of mass and economy of force deal directly with concentrating overwhelming power at the right time and the right place (or places). The versatility of airpower with its lethality, speed, and persistence makes it an attractive option for many tasks.
“Priority” Commanders should establish clear priorities for the use of airpower. Due to its inherent flexibility and versatility, the demands for airpower may likely exceed available resources. If commanders fail to establish priorities, they can become ineffective. The principles of mass, offensive, and economy of force, the tenet of concentration, and the Airman’s strategic perspective all apply to prioritizing airpower.
“Balance” Balance is an essential guideline for air commanders. Much of the skill of an air component commander is reflected in the dynamic and correct balancing of the principles of joint operations and the tenets of airpower to bring Air Force capabilities together to produce synergistic effects
Describe Building Partnerships
“Airmen interacting with international airmen … to develop, guide, and sustain relationships for mutual benefit and security.”
Identify the Air Force definition of culture
“Culture is the creation, maintenance, and transformation across generations of semi-shared patterns of meaning, sense-making, affiliation, action, and organization by groups.
Identify knowledge, skills and attitudes that lead to Cross-Cultural Perspective-Taking
Knowledge of factors that cause persons from other cultures to behave differently
Skills for dealing with culture shock along with effective problem-solving and interpersonal communication skills
Attitude of openness and willingness to learn about and accept cultural differences
Define Cross-Cultural Competence (components)
Airmen should be competent in: Culture, Region, Relevant language
State the three skills of the Air Force Cross-Cultural Competence (3C) Development model
Relate, Communicate, Negotiate.
State the definition of cultural domains
1. Family & Kinship
2. Sex & Gender
3. Sustenance & Health
4. Religion & Spirituality
5. Political & Social Relations
6. Economics & Resources
7. History & Myth
8. Learning & Knowledge
9. Technology & Material
10. Aesthetics & Recreation
11. Language & Communication
12. Time & Space
Recognize examples of cultural domains.
1. Family & Kinship: Ties between people who see themselves related by blood or by marriage.
2. Sex & Gender: Biological differences between men and women, corresponding roles and responsibilities assigned by society, and associated beliefs and values.
3. Sustenance & Health: The means and rituals by which humans feed themselves and treat their bodies.
4. Religion & Spirituality: System of ideas about the spiritual reality or the supernatural along with beliefs and ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and control aspects of the universe.
5. Political & Social Relations: Individuals’ differential access to power and the ways groups of people exercise power, govern themselves, and collectively lead their daily lives.
6. Economics & Resources: Impact of available resources and ways goods and services are allocated, produced, distributed and consumed in a society.
7. History & Myth: The ways people perceive themselves and their culture based on past events and stories passed down generation to generation.
8. Learning & Knowledge: Ways society transmits knowledge and cultural expectations to others.
9. Technology & Material: How society uses raw materials, equipment, knowledge and skills to transform their natural environment.
10. Aesthetics & Recreation: Expressions of cultural norms of beauty or style and the ways people spend their leisure time.
11. Language & Communication: Activity of transmitting thoughts, feelings, and information between people.
12. Time & Space: How a culture views use of time and personal space (manifested in language and communication).
Identify the three elements of cross-cultural communication
Paralanguage: tone (how we say what we say)
Nonverbals: touch, space, time, movement and gestures
Cultural Context: conditions or circumstances that impact communication
Explain sources of cross-cultural conflict
Values, relationships, data, interests
Define “servant” in terms of being a servant of the nation. (constitution)
an officer makes a voluntary choice to serve the nation, to place the nation’s interests ahead of his or her personal desires.
Describe the relationship between servitude, the Constitution, and our second Core Value of Service Before Self.
Servitude: being completely subject to someone more powerful
The Constitution: The Constitution is our founding document—the backbone of our nation.
Service before self: put service of your nation before your own personal needs
List the rights on which the Declaration of Independence is based.
all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. To secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed
Explain the purpose, application, and scope of Air Force Doctrine Volume II—Leadership.
Purpose - Establish doctrinal guidance for leadership and force development
Application (Total Force) - Active Duty, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard, Civilians
Describe the fundamental elements of Air Force leadership
Mission- objective or task that needs to be accomplished (Why we are here! It is the primary task)
Airmen- execute and accomplish the mission (Heart of the organization; perform the mission)
Summarize the components of Air Force leadership
List Some Leadership Actions
o Improve Development and Learning
o Accomplish - Enhanced by influence & improvement
Summarize the objective of the Practical Problem Solving Method
Help Airman focus on problem solving mission, workcenters, and people.
Approach aimed at making AF more effective and efficient.
What are the components of the OODA Loop
Observe, Orient, Decide, Act
Explain the Practical Problem Solving Method
Observe: Current situation/Facts/Known/Unknown
Orient: Understand situation/goals
Decide: Select a course of action
Act: Put your plan into action
Identify the steps in the Practical Problem Solving Method. (8)
Clarify the problem
Breakdown problem ID performance gaps
Set improvement target
Determine root cause
See countermeasures thru
Confirm result and process
Standardize successful processes
What are some different Air Force Operations?
Command and Control
Define the three levels of Air Force doctrine.
Basic, operational, tactical
Identify the operations associated with the Operations of Counterland.
-Airpower operations against enemy land force capabilities to create effects that achieve joint force commander objectives.
-This is accomplished by two means:
Air Interdiction-Air operations to divert, disrupt, delay or destroy the enemy’s surface military potential before it can be used effectively against friendly forces.”
--Targets for interdiction attacks: Military weapon systems and supplies (tanks/artillery/infantry/POL)
Close Air Support
(dentify the operations associated with the Operations of Air Mobility.
The rapid movement or personnel, material, and forces to and from or within a theater by air.
4 types of Air Mobility operations:
Airlift- Operations to transport and deliver forces and material through the air in support of Strategic, operational or tactical objectives
Air Refueling- refueling of an aircraft in flight by another aircraft
Air Mobility Support
Aeromedical Evacuation- provides en route care of regulated casualties to and between medical treatment facilities.
Identify the role of the President, the Secretary of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The President, along with the National Security Council (NSC), determines the security needs of the nation and then takes courses of action to ensure that those are met.
-NSC is chaired by the President.
- in his constitutional role as CINC of the Armed Forces, is the senior military authority in the nation and as such is ultimately responsible for the protection of the United States from all enemies, foreign and domestic.
-appoints Secretary of Defense with advise and consent from Senate.
2. Secretary of Defense-The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) carries out the President’s policies by tasking the military departments, the CJCS, and the unified commands.The only military representative on the President’s cabinet.
-a civilian appointee.
-has executive authority.
-The Secretary of Defense is the principal defense policy advisor to the President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense policy and policy related to all matters of direct and primary concern to the DOD, and for the execution of approved policy. Under the direction of the President, the Secretary exercises authority, direction, and control over the DOD.
-assigns the military administration missions (organize, train, and equip) to the military departments and the military operational missions (war fighting) to the unified and specified commands.
3. Joint Chief of Staffs-
-not in the operational chain of command
-the communications chain of command and military staff to the unified and specified commanders. The JCS prepares strategic plans and provides for the strategic direction of the Armed Forces. It reviews the plans and programs of unified and specified commands, considers major personnel and logistic requirements of the Armed Forces, and establishes unified doctrine. The JCS is also responsible for the assignment of logistic responsibilities to the military services, the formulation of policies for joint training, and the coordination of military education.
State the role of the Armed Forces Policy Council
advises the Secretary of Defense on matters of broad policy relating to the Armed Forces, considers and reports on any other matters that, in the opinion of the Secretary, need attention.
Define unified command
comprises forces from two or more military services and falls under one commander. Once forces come under a unified command, only the authority of the Secretary of Defense can transfer them
List the primary missions of the six geographically based unified combatant commands
US Central Command (USCENTCOM)-
promotes cooperation among nations, responds to crises, and deters or defeats state and nonstate aggression, and supports development and, when necessary, reconstruction in order to establish the conditions for regional security, stability, and prosperity.
US European Command (USEUCOM)-
conducts military operations, international military engagements, and interagency partnering to enhance transatlantic security and defend the United States forward.
US Pacific Command (USPACOM)-
protects and defends, in concert with other US Government agencies, the territory of the United States, its people, and its interests.
US Northern Command (USNORTHCOM)-
partners to conduct Homeland Defense and Civil Support operations within the assigned area of responsibility to defend, protect, and secure the United States and its interests.
US Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM)-
Ready to conduct joint and combined full-spectrum military operations and support whole-of-government efforts to enhance regional security and cooperation.
US Africa Command (USAFRICOM)-
protects and defends the national security interests of the United States by strengthening the defense capabilities of African states and regional organizations and, when directed, conducts military operations, in order to deter and defeat transnational threats and to provide a security environment conducive to good governance and development.
Differentiate among the four stages of group growth.
Forming, Norming, Storming, Performing
Describe the differences between groups and teams
Teams have: Stronger sense of identification, Common goals or tasks, Member & task interdependence, Differentiated & specialized roles
Identify the characteristics of effective teams
Defined mission, tasks, objective, or function, Cooperation & communication, Interdependence
Identify the principles of effective teams
Communication, Be clear & direct, Be concise, Listen actively, Avoid interrupting
Describe the three tiers of the enlisted force structure.
Junior Enlisted Airman Tier - Airman basic - SrA (beginning to becoming skilled, getting to know AF, custom/courtesies, profession of arms. Earn 5 skill lvl around A1C. SrA - attend ALS, begin leadership class, can supervise upon completion)
–Noncommissioned Officer Tier - SSgt (highly skilled techs, Supervise, train, and develop subordinates)- TSgt
–Senior Noncommissioned Officer Tier - MSgt - CMSgt (transition from technical experts to operational leaders. MSgt should enroll in SNCO PME. CMSgt - highest enlisted rank, operate at operational/strategic levels of leadership, provide senior enlisted leadership
Identify the special positions a senior noncommissioned officer (SNCO) can hold.
CMSAF - senior enlisted leader
–Advises Air Force Chief of Staff, Secretary of the Air Force, and Secretary of Defense on enlisted matters
Command Chief Master Sergeant (CCM)
–Senior enlisted leader in a wing, major command (MAJCOM), numbered Air Force (NAF, etc.
–Provides leadership to the enlisted force of the organization
–Advises commanders on enlisted matters
–Squadron, group, or function at wing-level position
–Provides leadership, management, and guidance to meet mission needs
–Work with commander and Command Chief Master Sergeant to execute mission accomplishment
–Go-to for all readiness, morale, welfare, and quality of life issues within the organization
–Advise commanders and command chiefs on morale, discipline, recognition, and professional development of enlisted Airmen
State the purpose of each of the enlisted Professional Military Education (PME) schools. (3)
Airman Leadership School (ALS) SrA goes to become a SSgt or higher
Noncommissioned Officer Academy (NCOA) TSgt goes to become a MSgt or higher
Senior Noncommissioned Officer Academy (SNCOA) MSgt goes to become a SMSgt or higher
Explain the concept of Full-Range Leadership
Essentially the ability to combine transactional and transformational leadership techniques for specific problems given a particular context.
Identify elements of the Full-Range Leadership Model
Distinguish between the five needs in Maslow’s hierarchy
survival: food, water, air, water, shelter
safety: safe from harm, psychological safety (job, health care, security, savings)
belonging: love, approval, acceptance, warmth
esteem: be recognized/respected, feel valued, know that what you do matters
self-actualization: self-fulfillment, personal growth, realizing potential
Identify ways to motivate people using Maslow’s needs theory
take care of their 5 needs and your people will be reaching for the stars
Distinguish between McGregor’s three motivational approaches
-Theory X (external control): people by nature don’t like to work, they lack ambition, and must be forced to work, people should be told what to do/coerced
-Hard Approach- Coercion, tight controls over behavior
-Soft Approach- Satisfying ppl’s demands, achieving harmony
-Theory Y (internal control): people may actively seek work, people prefer to participate in their own management and set their own goals, people seek responsibility
Identify ways to motivate people using McGregor’s theory Y approach
recognize achievements, provide clear tasks, remove roadblocks, give positive feedback, let them work independently, be there for them, give privileges, give more responsibilities, don’t make promises you cannot keep
Describe the AF Equal Opportunity Program
The primary objective of the Military Equal Opportunity Program is to improve mission effectiveness by providing an environment in which service members are ensured an opportunity to rise to the highest level of responsibility possible in the military profession, dependent only on merit, fitness and capability
Describe the Air Force and Air National Guard policies on Equal Opportunity
A member is only protected by this program while on military orders
State the objective of the Military Equal Opportunity Program
To improve the mission by providing a professional environment
Identify the five key services of the AF Equal Opportunity Program.
MEO formal/informal complaint process, Human Relations, Information and education quarterly statistical reporting
State the difference between discrimination and prejudice
Discrimination is a type of behavior in which people are treated according to a category rather than individual prejudices.
Prejudice is what we feel or believe, and no amount of laws can change this. It’s a judgment formed before due examination of the facts and can be favorable or unfavorable towards a person or set of circumstances
Identify ways a supervisor can diminish the impact of prejudice and discrimination in the Air Force
“It’s not what you preach, it’s what you tolerate.”
State the Air Force policy on sexual harassment
State commander/supervisory responsibilities regarding sexual harassment
Sensitivity - determine validity - investigate
If valid take swift, firm corrective or disciplinary action against the offender
No retaliatory action taken against the complainant
Explain the various forms of sexual harassment
Verbal Sexual Harassment - ex. inquiries into a person’s intimate or personal relationships, sexually oriented comments about one’s appearance, or continued pressure for dates, particularly after refusals
Non-verbal Sexual Harassment - ex. sexually demeaning notes or cartoons, nude pictures in and around the work area, or ashtrays, coffee mugs, or figurines of a sexual nature.
Physical Sexual Harassment - ex. patting, pinching, hugging, grabbing, rubbing, massaging, deliberate touching, or any other unnecessary physical contact. Blocking a person’s path, or pinning a person against a wall can also constitute sexual harassment.
Summarize the effects of sexual harassment on mission accomplishment.
Degrades leadership and interferes with command authority and mission effectiveness
Negatively affects unit cohesiveness - positions of authority being weakened, peer group relationships being jeopardized, decreased job performance
Loss of morale, or perceptions that certain individuals will receive favorable or preferential treatment over others
Identify informal and formal means of relief from sexual harassment
Informal level - communicate with harasser directly - inform the potential harasser’s supervisor or your supervisor. A complainant may lodge and document informal complaints with the Equal Opportunity office. The EO staff can assist complainants with summarizing allegations and providing advice but are not part of the resolution process.
Formal level - complaint to chain of command, legal office, security forces, the chaplain, Equal Opportunity office, Inspector General (IG) system, Congressional channels, or the US Attorney General. Complainants must submit formal complaints in writing
Explain what penalties could be associated with sexual harassment
Most sexual harassment complaints found to be valid result in oral or written reprimands, but sometimes far stricter penalties are imposed.
Sexual harassment can lead to court-martial action for the offender.
Describe the benefits and potential problems of a diverse workforce.
Benefits: creativity and innovation, broad range of skills, better service to diverse cultures
Problems: Overprotection of women/minorities, different consequences for same action, failure to train/coach, language barriers
Explain the importance of managing diversity in the military
-increase productivity and mission accomplishment, recruiting pool is more diverse
-reduce instances of discrimination
Define Sexual Assault as defined by the Department of Defense
Intentional sexual contact when victim cannot consent
Distinguish between what constitutes sexual consent and what does not
--"Consent" is defined as words or overt acts indicating a freely given agreement to the sexual conduct at issue by a competent person.
--An expression of non-consent through words or conduct means there is no consent.
--Lack of verbal or physical resistance or submission resulting from the accused's use of force, threat of force, or placing another person in fear does not constitute consent.
Consent cannot be given when the victim is asleep, incapacitated, or unconscious.
A current or previous dating relationship by itself or the manner of dress of the person involved with the accused in the sexual conduct at issue shall not constitute consent.
--Key Issues in Consent No person can give consent when…
• Threats/Violence • Lack of mental or physical faculties • Unconscious or asleep • Incapacitated • Coercion by person in position of authority • Under Age
Identify the Department of Defense policy on confidentiality
AF Confidentiality Policy:
Restricted Reporting •
Victim can report sexual assault without automatic investigation
• Encourages victims to come forward for help •
Gives victim time, support and increased control over personal information • Confidentiality can remain intact only if reported to proper resource AF Confidentiality Policy: Restricted Reporting •
The following resources are available for sexual assault victims when filing a Restricted Report: –SARC or SAPR Victim Advocate –Sexual Assault Forensic Exam (SAFE) –Special Victims’ Counsel (SVC) –Mental Health (e.g. Counseling) –Medical (Primary Care) –Chaplain –DoD Safe Helpline •
Describe the roles of perpetrator, facilitator, bystander, and victim
Perpetrator – assaults the victim
Facilitator – enables or encourages the perpetrator
Bystander – observes the situation and chooses whether to act (or not)
Victim – assaulted by the perpetrator
Explain the significance of a Wingman as related to sexual assault prevention and response
Wingmen can help protect the victim and stop the perpetrator
Describe the roles of the Sexual Assault Response Coordinator (SARC), Victim Advocate (VA) and Special Victims’ Counsel (SVC)
-Sexual Assault Response Coordinator (SARC): Considered the center of gravity when
it comes to ensuring that victims of sexual assault receive appropriate and responsive
-Victim Advocate (VA): The victim advocates are volunteers who are specially trained to
support victims of sexual assault. They are not counselors and are not part of legal or law
enforcement agencies. Instead, their main purpose is to provide supportive services to
the sexual assault victim. As a peer, the Victim Advocate is a critical factor in the victim’s
healing process. (Military members interested in acting as Victim Advocates can contact
the base SARC for information.)
-Special Victims’ Counsel (SVC): Attorneys who provide confidential legal assistance
through independent representation to victims. At the time of reporting, victims must be
informed of the availability of legal assistance and the right to consult with the SVC.
Victims have confidential and privileged communication with their SVC.
Identify available on and off base resources for victims
The following resources are available for sexual assault victims when filing a Restricted Report:
SARC or SAPR Victim Advocate
Sexual Assault Forensic Exam (SAFE)
Special Victims’ Counsel (SVC)
Mental Health (e.g. Counseling)
Medical (Primary Care)
DoD Safe Helpline
Describe the effect sexual assault can have on a unit’s trust and cohesion
Destroys trust and causes damage to the team
State the importance of displaying empathy to a victim of sexual assault
Survivors of sexual assault need someone to listen and not judge them . Not doing so can cause even more emotional damage to the victim.
Explain how gender relations and sexism can impact trust and mission accomplishment
Sexism impacts the team in a negative way because it causes damage to the female team members, preventing them from performing their best to complete the mission
Comprehend the different forms of retaliation
In the form of reprisal, the action affecting a Service members’ professional opportunities. The taking or threatening to take an adverse personnel action, or withholding or threatening to withhold a favorable personnel action, with respect to
a military member because the member reported a criminal offense. Reprisal can involve a range of unjustified personnel action such as interfering with promotion or unfairly denying an award.
2. In the form of ostracizing, individuals are excluded from social acceptance, privilege or friendship with the intent to discourage reporting of a criminal offense or otherwise
discourage the due administration of justice.
3. In the form of maltreatment, includes treatment by peers or by other persons, that, when viewed objectively under all the circumstances, is abusive or otherwise unnecessary for any unlawful purpose, that is done with the intent to discourage reporting of a criminal offense or otherwise discourage the due administration of justice, and that results in physical or mental harm or suffering, or reasonably could have caused
physical or mental harm or suffering.
Identify prevention strategies to safely intervene and to guard against retaliation because of that intervention.§ • Identify where victims can seek assistance on how to report retaliation.
Service personnel to invoke their Service-specific reporting procedures
• Service Military Equal Opportunity representative to file a complaint of sexual
• Service personnel to file a complaint of wrongs in accordance with Article 138 of
• DoD IG, invoking Whistle-Blower Protections
• Commander or SARC to request an Expedited Transfer
• Commander or SARC to request a safety transfer or MPO, if the victim fears
• A G/FO (general or flag officer) if the retaliation, reprisal involves administrative
separation of a victim within 1 year of the final disposition of the sexual assault
Installation IG if the victim believes there has been an impact on their military
career due to re-porting a sexual assault or sought mental health treatment for
Know the updates to the military justice system that impact victims
Making changes to Article 32 (preliminary hearings) and Article 60 (convening
authority) of the UCMJ as it relates to victim’s/survivor’s sexual assault case.
• Elimination of the 5-year statute of limitations on sexual assault.
• Coordinating victim interviews with OSI, defense counsel, and others request
through the Special Victims Counsel (SVC), trial counsel, or other counsel.
- Allowing the victim the right to be accompanied to an interview by the SARC,
SAPR VA, SVC, or other counsel for the government.
- Consulting with the victim/survivor on their preference whether the sexual
assault offense should be prosecuted by court-martial, or in a civilian court with
jurisdiction, for offenses that occur in the U.S.
• Allowing victim the right to submit matters for consideration by the convening
authority during the clemency phase of the court-martial process and the convening
authority will not consider the victim’s character as a factor in making his or her
determination unless such matters were presented at trial and not excluded at trial.
• Requiring a minimum mandatory sentence of dismissal or dishonorable discharge
for persons found guilty in a general court-martial of: rape under Article 120(a);
sexual assault under Article 120(b); forcible sodomy under Article 125; or an
attempt to commit these offenses under Article 80 of the UCMJ.
• Requiring that sex-related offenses be included in personnel records and mandating
commanders to review personnel records of incoming Service members for these
State the definition of cultural domains
Twelve universal categories of interaction, belief and meaning shared by all cultures but dealt with differently by each culture
Recognize examples of cultural domains
Describe the five personal conflict management styles
Forcing - high assertiveness and low cooperation. (Satisfying your own needs at another’s expense.)
•Accommodating - low assertiveness/high cooperation. (High concern for the goals of others but a low concern for your own. This approach stresses relationships over the right course for a group the long haul. Eg. customer service)
•Avoiding - low assertiveness/low cooperation. (Low concern for your goals and a low concern for the goals of others. It neglects the interests of all parties. Outcome: lose-lose
Good if the issue isn’t that important.)
•Compromising - mid assertiveness/mid cooperation. (Some concern for your goals and some concern for others but the two parties are neither fully satisfied nor totally dissatisfied.)
•Collaborating - high assertiveness/high cooperation. (High concern for your goals and a high concern for the goals of others at it attempts to fully address the concern. Outcome: win- win)
Explain the concepts of efficiency and effectiveness as they relate to management
Efficiency: minimizing resource costs
Effectiveness: accomplish the mission
Identify the four basic management functions
Planning ---> Organizing ---> Leading ---> Controlling
Organizing: 4 Steps
- Determining the tasks
- Establish the structure
- Allocate Resources
- Develop Procedures
Organizing: 4 Principles
Span of Control
Unity of Command
Delegation of Authority
Differentiate between the three primary roles of managers
Interpersonal: figurehead, liaison, leader
Informational: monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
Decisional: entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
Explain the universality of the manager’s job
Level in the organization
Profit vs. not-for-profit
Size of organization
Transferability across national borders
Making decisions & dealing with change
Distribution of time
- First Level Managers: Direct the day-to-day activities of subordinates
- Middle Manager: Manage other managers; translate goals of top management into details lower-level managers can perform
- Top Manager: Establishes policies that affect all organization members
Identify examples of general and specific managerial skills.
- Conceptual: Mental ability to coordinate interest/activities
- Interpersonal: understand, mentor, motivate others
- Technical: Use tools, procedures, techniques
- Political: build power base & est. connections
- Controlling organizational environment/resources
- Organizing & coordinating
- Handling information
- Provide growth & development
- Motivate & handle conflicts
- Strategic problem solving
State the three enduring truths that describe the fundamental nature of war
1. War is an instrument of national policy
2. War is a complex and chaotic endeavor
3. War is a clash of opposing wills.
Define war according to Clausewitz
“War is nothing but a duel on an extensive scale… Each strives by physical force to compel the other to submit to his will… War therefore is an act of violence to compel our opponent to do our will.”
Identify the basic themes of war
Policy and Violence
Differentiate among the four viewpoints on war: Pacifism, Realism, Holy War, and Just War Theory.
Wars are clashes of power and interest
Moral constraints should never be put above a nation’s self-interest
Focuses on military necessity, where all methods can or should be used to achieve victory: Burning of Atlanta in Civil War, Bombing civilian centers in WWII
Holy War- Wars aren’t merely human affairs:
Divine instruments of judgment
Authorized by God
God responsible for outcome
Cosmic battle between Good and Evil
Opposes war as a means of settling disputes and advocates use of arbitration, surrender, or even migration
Avoidance of war at all costs
War only as a last resort
Just War Theory- Killing is morally unacceptable…
Determine when war is morally justified and define actions that are permissible
List the three factors that dominate war
Fog- Difficult to see and understand what’s happening in battle
Friction- Friction is that which seems easy in war planning made difficult in reality
Chance- Plain dumb luck and fortune (e.g. Hitler bombing and USS Indianapolis)
Describe the evolution of warfare according to Alan Beyerchen’s taxonomy of four world wars.
Focused on warfare and how it has evolved. Classifies four World Wars:
1. WWI- “The Chemists War”
2. WWII- “The Physicists War”
3. WWIII- “ The Researchers’ War” (US ability to exploit intelligence)
4. WWIV- “The Social Scientists War”
State the mission and priorities of the United States Air Force
To Fly, Fight, and Win in Air, Space, and Cyberspace...
Continue to strengthen the nuclear enterprise
Partner with joint and coalition team to win today’s fight
Develop and care for Airmen and their families
Modernize our air and space inventories, organizations, and training
Recapture acquisition excellence
State the function of the Secretary of the Air Force, Air Force Chief of Staff, and the Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force.
The Secretary of the Air Force conducts the administrative affairs of the department and is directly responsible to the Secretary of Defense. In the overall administration of the department, the secretary handles matters relating to fiscal spending, production, procurement, and legal plans and programs. The secretary does not become directly involved in military operations.
The Secretary of the Air Force has an Under Secretary, four assistant secretaries, as well as other assistants, advisors, or directors. The heads of these offices are staff advisers to the secretary for the functions assigned to them. The assistant secretaries act for and with the authority of the Secretary on any matters within their respective areas of responsibility.
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF) is the military head of the Air Force and is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Air Force for the efficiency and operational readiness of the Air Force. The CSAF is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The Chief of Staff delegates virtually all functions as the US Air Force military head to the Vice Chief of Staff when demands of JCS duties necessitate such actions. The Vice Chief works directly with the Air Staff, making decisions and issuing orders in the name of the Chief of Staff.
The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force represents the highest enlisted level of leadership in the Air Force and represents their interests, as appropriate, to the American public, and to those in all levels of government. He serves as personal adviser to the Chief of Staff and Secretary of the Air Force on all issues regarding the welfare, readiness, morale, and proper utilization of the enlisted force.
The Air Staff furnishes professional assistance to the secretary, under secretary, and the assistant secretaries. The Air Staff is a headquarters functional organization under the CSAF. It includes management functions that cannot be delegated or decentralized elsewhere but are needed by the Secretary of the Air Force and the Chief of Staff to set present and future designs and structures of the Air Force.
List the USAF organizational structure from the President to the flight level
Identify key elements within and related to a typical Air Force Wing structure
The next step down brings us to the wing. A wing’s mission is to develop and maintain the capability to conduct warfare, or support that conduct. It contains all the elements within its staff structure needed to perform the mission and operate from a base. In other words, the wing is the only echelon of command that is capable of deploying and sustaining itself for an indefinite length of time. The wing commander is usually a brigadier general who is responsible for the entire wing. Under the wing commander, there is a wing staff and four groups (see figure below).
This structure has helped eliminate a lot of waste in the Air Force and increased our warfighting capability. The Air Force has eliminated many of the general officer staff jobs and put the generals back in the field commanding troops. This way, they will be able to directly impact our forces positively.
The wing has four Groups. Groups are flexible units made up of two or more squadrons except in the Air National Guard where the Med Group does not have Squadrons. These groups’ primary functions may be operations, maintenance, mission support, or medical. Colonels command these groups.
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Under these groups, there could be several Squadrons. Squadrons are the fundamental units in the Air Force. The squadron is the lowest formal echelon of command, and it’s the building block for the entire Air Force. The squadron is responsible for conducting the day- to-day mission for the wing. In addition, the squadron is the lowest echelon of command that can deploy on its own, but it does not have the capability to sustain itself indefinitely like a wing. Squadrons are usually commanded by a lieutenant colonel, but not always.
The final level in the Air Force is the flight. A squadron commander’s span of control is generally limited, and the flight commanders help maintain the squadron’s efficiency.
Other organizations included in the Air Force are direct reporting units and field operating agencies. Direct reporting units (DRU) are subdivisions of the Air Force directly subordinate to the Chief of Staff. Field operating agencies, on the other hand, report to a functional manager because of a unique mission, legal requirements, or other factors.
Whew! I wish my brain was as big as...
Gandy's biceps (and his ego)